Resource availability as a proxy for terminal investment in a beetle

Indrikis A. Krams (Lead / Corresponding author), Tatjana Krama, Fhionna R. Moore, Markus J. Rantala, Raivo Mänd, Pranas Mierauskas, Marika Mänd

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    23 Citations (Scopus)


    Terminal investment hypothesis is a longstanding theoretical idea that organisms should increase their reproductive effort as their prospects for survival and reproduction decline. However, numerous attempts to test the terminal investment in reproduction have yielded contradictory results. This study reports an experimental confirmation of the terminal investment hypothesis. It was predicted that immune-challenged yellow mealworm beetles (Tenebrio molitor) are more likely to follow terminal investment strategy when their food resources are limited. Our results suggest the key role of food resources while making decisions to follow a terminal investment strategy. We found that male individuals invested in their sexual attractiveness at the expense of immune response and survival when food was not available. In contrast, the beetles did not decrease their lifespan and did not invest in the attractiveness of their sex odours under conditions of food ad libitum. Our results show the importance of food availability and quality in understanding the evolution of reproductive strategies.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)339-345
    Number of pages7
    Issue number2
    Early online date13 Jan 2015
    Publication statusPublished - Jun 2015


    • Reproduction
    • Resources
    • Sexual attractiveness
    • Tenebrio molitor
    • Terminal investment

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics


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