Resting heart rate and outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease: where do we currently stand?

Ian B A Menown, Simon Davies, Sandeep Gupta, Paul R. Kalra, Chim Choy Lang, Chris Morley, Sandosh Padmanabhan

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    31 Citations (Scopus)


    Data from large epidemiological studies suggest that elevated heart rate is independently associated with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in patients with hypertension and in those with established cardiovascular disease. Clinical trial findings also suggestthatthe favourable effects of beta-blockers and other heart rate lowering agents in patients with acute myocardial infarction and congestive heart failuremay be, at least in part,due to their heart rate-lowering effects. Contemporary clinical outcome prediction models such as the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) scorefor patients withacute coronary syndrome, includes admission heart rate as an independent risk factor. This articlecritically reviews the key epidemiologyconcerning heart rate and cardiovascular risk, potential mechanisms through which an elevatedresting heart rate may be disadvantageous and evaluates clinical trial outcomes associated with pharmacologicalreduction ofresting heart rate. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)215-223
    Number of pages9
    JournalCardiovascular Therapeutics
    Issue number4
    Early online date20 Jul 2012
    Publication statusPublished - 2012


    • Coronary artery disease
    • Cardiovascular risk
    • Beta-blockers
    • Calcium channel blockers
    • If channel blockers
    • Angina
    • Heart failure


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