Retinal Imaging in Alzheimer’s Disease

Carol Y. Cheung (Lead / Corresponding author), Vincent Mok, Paul J. Foster, Emanuele Trucco, Christopher L. H. Chen, Tien-Yin Wong

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

44 Citations (Scopus)
603 Downloads (Pure)


Identifying biomarkers of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) will accelerate the understanding of its pathophysiology, facilitate screening and risk stratification, and aid in developing new therapies. Developments in non-invasive retinal imaging technologies, including optical coherence tomography (OCT), OCT-angiography and digital retinal photography, have provided a means to study neuronal and vascular structures in the retina in people with AD. Both qualitative and quantitative measurements from these retinal imaging technologies (e.g. thinning of peripapillary RNFL, inner retinal layer, and choroidal layer, reduced capillary density, abnormal vasodilatory response) have been shown to be associated with cognitive function impairment and risk of AD. The development of computer algorithms for respective retinal imaging methods has further enhanced the potential of retinal imaging as a viable tool for rapid, early detection and screening of AD. In this review, we present an update of current retinal imaging techniques and their potential applications in AD research. We also discuss the newer retinal imaging techniques and future directions in this expanding field.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)983-994
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry
Issue number9
Early online date9 Jun 2021
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2021


  • Alzheimer's disease
  • image analysis
  • ophthalmology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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