We studied a 10-year-old girl with Sydenham's chorea (SC) using positron emission tomography (PET) with fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). Choreic movements involved the head and the left side of her body. PET showed increased glucose metabolism in the right caudate nucleus and putamen. Three months after complete recovery, striatal glucose metabolism had returned to normal in the caudate nucleus. In the right putamen, glucose metabolism had decreased compared to that in the first study but remained elevated compared to that of normal young adults. We propose that the transient striatal hypermetabolism may have been due to increased afferent inputs to the striatum as a consequence of striatal or subthalamic nucleus dysfunction.