Review of aldosterone- and angiotensin II-induced target organ damage and prevention

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    200 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Aldosterone is well recognized as a cause of sodium reabsorption, water retention, and potassium and magnesium loss; however, it also produces a variety of other actions that lead to progressive target organ damage in the heart, vasculature, and kidneys. Aldosterone interacts with mineralocorticoid receptors to promote endothelial dysfunction, facilitate thrombosis, reduce vascular compliance, impair baroreceptor function, and cause myocardial and vascular fibrosis. Although angiotensin II has been considered the major mediator of cardiovascular damage, increasing evidence suggests that aldosterone may mediate and exacerbate the damaging effects of angiotensin II. While angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers reduce plasma aldosterone levels initially, aldosterone rebound, or 'escape' may occur during long-term therapy. Therefore, aldosterone blockade is required to reduce the risk of progressive target organ damage in patients with hypertension and heart failure. This may be achieved nonselectively with spironolactone or with use of the selective aldosterone blocker eplerenone. While both agents have been demonstrated to be effective antihypertensive agents, eplerenone may produce improved target organ protection as witnessed in a variety of clinical settings, without the antiandrogenic and progestational effects commonly observed with spironolactone.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)663-70
    Number of pages8
    JournalCardiovascular Research
    Volume61
    Issue number4
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2004

    Fingerprint

    Aldosterone
    Angiotensin II
    Spironolactone
    Blood Vessels
    Mineralocorticoid Receptors
    Pressoreceptors
    Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists
    Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
    Magnesium
    Antihypertensive Agents
    Compliance
    Potassium
    Thrombosis
    Fibrosis
    Heart Failure
    Sodium
    Hypertension
    Kidney
    Water

    Cite this

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    abstract = "Aldosterone is well recognized as a cause of sodium reabsorption, water retention, and potassium and magnesium loss; however, it also produces a variety of other actions that lead to progressive target organ damage in the heart, vasculature, and kidneys. Aldosterone interacts with mineralocorticoid receptors to promote endothelial dysfunction, facilitate thrombosis, reduce vascular compliance, impair baroreceptor function, and cause myocardial and vascular fibrosis. Although angiotensin II has been considered the major mediator of cardiovascular damage, increasing evidence suggests that aldosterone may mediate and exacerbate the damaging effects of angiotensin II. While angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers reduce plasma aldosterone levels initially, aldosterone rebound, or 'escape' may occur during long-term therapy. Therefore, aldosterone blockade is required to reduce the risk of progressive target organ damage in patients with hypertension and heart failure. This may be achieved nonselectively with spironolactone or with use of the selective aldosterone blocker eplerenone. While both agents have been demonstrated to be effective antihypertensive agents, eplerenone may produce improved target organ protection as witnessed in a variety of clinical settings, without the antiandrogenic and progestational effects commonly observed with spironolactone.",
    author = "Struthers, {Allan D} and MacDonald, {Thomas M}",
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    AB - Aldosterone is well recognized as a cause of sodium reabsorption, water retention, and potassium and magnesium loss; however, it also produces a variety of other actions that lead to progressive target organ damage in the heart, vasculature, and kidneys. Aldosterone interacts with mineralocorticoid receptors to promote endothelial dysfunction, facilitate thrombosis, reduce vascular compliance, impair baroreceptor function, and cause myocardial and vascular fibrosis. Although angiotensin II has been considered the major mediator of cardiovascular damage, increasing evidence suggests that aldosterone may mediate and exacerbate the damaging effects of angiotensin II. While angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers reduce plasma aldosterone levels initially, aldosterone rebound, or 'escape' may occur during long-term therapy. Therefore, aldosterone blockade is required to reduce the risk of progressive target organ damage in patients with hypertension and heart failure. This may be achieved nonselectively with spironolactone or with use of the selective aldosterone blocker eplerenone. While both agents have been demonstrated to be effective antihypertensive agents, eplerenone may produce improved target organ protection as witnessed in a variety of clinical settings, without the antiandrogenic and progestational effects commonly observed with spironolactone.

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