Review of emerging technologies in policing: findings and recommendations

Irena Leisbet Ceridwen Connon, Mo Egan, Niall Hamilton-Smith, Niamh MacKay, Diana Miranda, C. William R. Webster

Research output: Book/ReportCommissioned report

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This report has been compiled for the Scottish Government’s “Emerging Technologies in Policing” project, and was commissioned by the Scottish Institute for Policing Research (SIPR) acting on behalf of the Scottish Government. It is based on a review of emerging technologies in policing undertaken between January and July 2022. The review considered: 1) the social and ethical implications of particular types of emerging technologies in policing practice, 2) the legal considerations associated with the adoption of emerging technologies in policing, 3) recommendations from the existing research examining the trial and adoption of new emerging technologies in policing, as well as for ethical and scientific standards frameworks and guidelines, for informing best practice and wider dissemination of these technologies in police practice, 4) recommendations for the use of emerging technologies in policing based on experiences from other sectors (Health, Children and Family), and 5) the lessons learnt and recommendations that can be made from the analysis of existing case law concerning emerging technology. The report provides a descriptive overview of the relevant literature and case law available, as well as a series of recommendations for best practice in the implementation and dissemination of the different forms of technology in police practice. The types of emerging technologies in policing practice considered in this review are electronic databases, biometric identification systems and artificial intelligence (AI), and surveillance systems and tracking devices.
Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationEdinburgh
PublisherScottish Government
Number of pages486
ISBN (Electronic)9781805253518
Publication statusPublished - 22 Feb 2023


  • policing
  • artificial intelligence
  • Biometric database
  • risk
  • emerging risk
  • emerging technology
  • society
  • legal development
  • surveillance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Social Sciences
  • Law
  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Sociology and Political Science


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