Objectives: The transient receptor potential ankyrin A 1 (TRPA1) channel and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) are targets for migraine prophylaxis. This study aimed to understand their mechanisms in migraine by investigating the role of TRPA1 in cortical spreading depression (CSD) in vivo and exploring how reactive oxygen species (ROS)/TRPA1/CGRP interplay in regulating cortical susceptibility to CSD.
Methods: Immunohistochemistry was used for detecting TRPA1 expression. CSD was induced by K + on the cerebral cortex, monitored using electrophysiology in rats, and intrinsic optical imaging in mouse brain slices, respectively. Drugs were perfused into contralateral ventricle of rats. Lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde, MDA) analysis was used for indicating ROS level.
Results: TRPA1 was expressed in cortical neurons and astrocytes of rats and mice. TRPA1 deactivation by an anti-TRPA1 antibody reduced cortical susceptibility to CSD in rats and decreased ipsilateral MDA level induced by CSD. In mouse brain slices, H 2 O 2 facilitated submaximal CSD induction, which disappeared by the antioxidant, tempol and the TRPA1 antagonist, A-967079; Consistently, TRPA1 activation reversed prolonged CSD latency and reduced magnitude by the antioxidant. Further, blockade of CGRP prolonged CSD latency, which was reversed by H 2 O 2 and the TRPA1 agonist, allyl-isothiocyanate, respectively.
Conclusions: ROS/TRPA1/CGRP signaling plays a critical role in regulating cortical susceptibility to CSD. Inhibition ROS and deactivation of TRPA1 channels may have therapeutic benefits in preventing stress-triggered migraine via CGRP.
- Calcitonin gene-related peptide
- Cortical spreading depression
- Reactive oxygen species
- Transient receptor potential ankyrin a 1
- Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism
- Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology
- Signal Transduction
- Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide/metabolism
- Cerebral Cortex/metabolism
- Mice, Inbred C57BL
- Cortical Spreading Depression/physiology
- Rats, Sprague-Dawley
- Migraine Disorders/prevention & control
- TRPA1 Cation Channel/metabolism
- Disease Models, Animal