Sex estimation using nonmetric variables: Application of R functions

Efthymia Nikita, Julieta Gómez García-Donas, Panos Nikitas, Zuzana Obertová, Elena F. Kranioti

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter (peer-reviewed)peer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


The aim of this paper is to provide a methodological guide on how to select, test, and use statistical procedures for sex estimation using morphological traits of the cranium expressed on an ordinal scale. R functions were developed to implement binary logistic regression (BLR) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), and step-by-step instructions with examples from Cretan and Cypriot modern identified skeletal samples were provided to illustrate the potential and limitations of each method. Even though the current case study focused on cranial traits, the R functions provided may be used for any morphological skeletal trait.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationStatistics and Probability in Forensic Anthropology
EditorsZuzana Obertová, Alistair Stewart, Cristina Cattaneo
PublisherAcademic Press
Number of pages15
ISBN (Print)9780128157640
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Biological profile
  • Regression analysis
  • Discriminant function
  • Accuracy
  • Ordinal scale


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