Situational changes in self-awareness influence 3- and 4-year-olds' self-regulation

J. Ross, J. R. Anderson, R. N. Campbell

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    23 Citations (Scopus)


    In adults, heightened self-awareness leads to adherence to socially valued norms, whereas lowered self-awareness is associated with antinormative behavior. Levels of self-awareness are influenced by environmental cues such as mirrors. Do situational changes in self-awareness also have an impact on preschoolers’ self-regulation? Adherence to a socially valued standard was observed under different conditions of self-focus. In Experiment 1 the standard was prescribed (“don’t look in the box”), and in Experiment 2 children had the opportunity to be altruistic. Heightened self-focus was induced using a large mirror. In a neutral condition, the nonreflective side of the mirror was shown. To lower self-focus, children wore a disguise. Preschoolers peeked less and showed more altruism when the mirror image was present. As found for adults, it appears that self-awareness leads 3- and 4-year-olds to adhere to salient social standards. These results suggest that self-focus has a socially adaptive regulatory function from an early age.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)126-138
    Number of pages13
    JournalJournal of Experimental Child Psychology
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished - Jan 2011


    • Objective self-awareness
    • Self-conscious
    • Self evaluation
    • Self-recognition
    • Deindividuation
    • Self-regulation
    • Prosocial behavior
    • Preschool children


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