Size and shape measurement in contemporary cephalometrics

Grant T. McIntyre, Peter A. Mossey

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

    86 Citations (Scopus)


    The traditional method of analysing cephalograms - conventional cephalometric analysis (CCA) - involves the calculation of linear distance measurements, angular measurements, area measurements, and ratios. Because shape information cannot be determined from these 'size-based' measurements, an increasing number of studies employ geometric morphometric tools in the cephalometric analysis of craniofacial morphology. Most of the discussions surrounding the appropriateness of CCA, Procrustes superimposition, Euclidean distance matrix analysis (EDMA), thin-plate spline analysis (TPS), finite element morphometry (FEM), elliptical Fourier functions (EFF), and medial axis analysis (MAA) have centred upon mathematical and statistical arguments. Surprisingly, little information is available to assist the orthodontist in the clinical relevance of each technique. This article evaluates the advantages and limitations of the above methods currently used to analyse the craniofacial morphology on cephalograms and investigates their clinical relevance and possible applications.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)231-242
    Number of pages12
    JournalEuropean Journal of Orthodontics
    Issue number3
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2003

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Orthodontics


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