Skeletal age estimation in juveniles and subadults

Craig A. Cunningham (Lead / Corresponding author)

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

1 Citation (Scopus)


Skeletal age estimation of living and deceased juvenile individuals is the only pillar of the biological profile that can be assessed accurately by the forensic anthropologist when biological identity is unknown or in question. This accuracy can be attributed to the well-defined chronology of developmental milestones that the juvenile skeleton undergoes from the point of ossification through to the attainment of maturity. These developmental milestones have been extensively documented within the anthropological literature and have resulted in the formulation of aging standards that can be used in the assessment of biological age. During development, age is typically estimated via assessment of the appearance, changing morphology, and the fusion of ossification centers. Each of these events can be assessed via a combination of morphological and metric techniques. This chapter will discuss the growth and development of the skeleton and will provide an overview of the general principles and primary methods used in the estimation of skeletal age from the juvenile skeleton.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAge Estimation
Subtitle of host publicationA Multidisciplinary Approach
EditorsJoe Adserias-Garriga
PublisherAcademic Press
Number of pages14
ISBN (Electronic)9780128144923
ISBN (Print)9780128144916
Publication statusPublished - 2019


  • Age
  • Bone
  • Juvenile
  • Ossification
  • Skeleton
  • Subadult

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Sciences(all)


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