Socioeconomic variation and prostate specific antigen testing in the community: a United kingdom based population study

Rhian M. Morgan, Robert J. C. Steele, Ghulam Nabi, Colin McCowan (Lead / Corresponding author)

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    22 Citations (Scopus)


    We examined the association of prostate specific antigen testing with prostate cancer incidence, tumor differentiation and mortality according to socioeconomic status.

    Materials and Methods
    Participants were 96,484 men between 40 and 99 years old without preexisting prostate cancer who were registered with a general practitioner in the Tayside region of Scotland, United Kingdom, between January 1, 2003 and December 31, 2008. We performed a retrospective cohort analysis using anonymized health data, including biochemistry data on prostate specific antigen tests, Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation, cancer registry data set and General Register Office for Scotland death records. Main outcome measures were prostate specific antigen testing, prostate cancer incidence and death.

    Men in the most affluent Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation quintile had a greater chance of undergoing a prostate specific antigen test (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.40–1.57, p <0.001) and having prostate cancer (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.15–1.91, p = 0.002) than men in the most deprived quintile, adjusting for age. There was no association between deprivation index quintile and prostate cancer death.

    Increased affluence was associated with a higher likelihood of a prostate specific antigen test and a higher incidence of prostate cancer. However, there were no observed differences by social class of the likelihood of a positive prostate specific antigen test or prostate cancer related death.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1207-1212
    Number of pages6
    JournalJournal of Urology
    Issue number4
    Publication statusPublished - 2013


    • prostate
    • prostate-specific antigen
    • prostatic neoplasms
    • mortality
    • social class


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