Background/objectives: Functional appliances are commonly used to correct Class II malocclusion. This study aimed to compare the facial soft tissue changes in Caucasians between pre-treatment and with the construction bite versus pre-treatment and completion of treatment with a modified Twin-block appliance (MTBA).
Materials and methods: Fifty-eight Caucasian subjects with Class II division 1 malocclusion had 3D stereophotogrammetric images captured pre-treatment (T1), with the construction bite (T2), and on completion of MTBA treatment (T3). Twenty-six landmarks were located on each image and 10% were re-landmarked 1 month later. Soft-tissue linear and volumetric changes (T1-T2 and T1-T3) were analyzed using linear mixed effect models (SAS® Version 9.4, www.sas.com).
Results: Forty-seven subjects [mean age 13.2 (SD 1.7) years] completed treatment [mean duration 9.8 (SD 3.8) months]. Differences between the changes from T1 to T2 versus T1 to T3 for upper facial and upper lip landmarks were insignificant (all P > 0.05) except for nasion, orbitale right, pronasale, and subnasale. For the same comparisons, lower lip and chin landmarks changed significantly (all P < 0.05) as did facial soft tissue volume (P< 0.0001).
Limitations: There was no control group.
Conclusion: The facial soft tissue changes from pre-treatment to with the construction bite were considerably more than those from pre-treatment to completion of treatment with a MTBA.
Implication: With MTBA treatment, the soft tissue changes from pre-treatment to with the construction bite in situ, overestimate those from pre- to post-treatment.
- Journal article
- Soft tissue
- Transverse spin relaxation time