State Responsibility for Injurious Transboundary Activity in Retrospect

Nathalie L.J.T Horbach, Pieter H.F. Bekker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


International law, both conventional and customary law, has been subject to rapid transformation and crystallization in the last few decades. This is especially the case in the field of international environmental law. Conduct that was not prohibited under international law at the time of initiation can now be characterized as contravening a number of newly and widely recognized principles and norms of international environmental law. Principles that may be said to have gained such wide recognition in international law as well as domestic law, albeit to varying degrees, include the precautionary principle, the polluter-pays principle and the sic utere tuo principle described below. Such principles have been invoked in a wide variety of international disputes with the aim of halting activities undertaken within one state having environmentally injurious transboundary consequences in other states or territories beyond the jurisdiction of any state (e.g., the High Seas).
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)327-371
Number of pages45
JournalNetherlands International Law Review
Early online date2 Apr 2003
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2003


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