Strategies, processes, outcomes, and costs of implementing experience sampling-based monitoring in routine mental health care in four European countries: study protocol for the IMMERSE effectiveness-implementation study

Ulrich Reininghaus (Lead / Corresponding author), Matthias Schwannauer, Islay Barne, Joanne R Beames, Rafaël A Bonnier, Manuel Brenner, Dagmar Breznoščáková, Daniel Dančík, Manuela De Allegri, Simona Di Folco, Daniel Durstewitz, Jessica Gugel, Michal Hajdúk, Anton Heretik, Ľubomíra Izáková, Zuzana Katreniakova, Glenn Kiekens, Georgia Koppe, Adam Kurilla, Luca MarelliIveta Nagyova, Hoa Nguyen, Ján Pečeňák, Julia C C Schulte-Strathaus, Koraima Sotomayor-Enriquez, Lotte Uyttebroek, Jeroen Weermeijer, Maria Wolters, Michel Wensing, Jan R Boehnke, Inez Myin-Germeys, Anita Schick

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Recent years have seen a growing interest in the use of digital tools for delivering person-centred mental health care. Experience Sampling Methodology (ESM), a structured diary technique for capturing moment-to-moment variation in experience and behaviour in service users' daily life, reflects a particularly promising avenue for implementing a person-centred approach. While there is evidence on the effectiveness of ESM-based monitoring, uptake in routine mental health care remains limited. The overarching aim of this hybrid effectiveness-implementation study is to investigate, in detail, reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance as well as contextual factors, processes, and costs of implementing ESM-based monitoring, reporting, and feedback into routine mental health care in four European countries (i.e., Belgium, Germany, Scotland, Slovakia).

METHODS: In this hybrid effectiveness-implementation study, a parallel-group, assessor-blind, multi-centre cluster randomized controlled trial (cRCT) will be conducted, combined with a process and economic evaluation. In the cRCT, 24 clinical units (as the cluster and unit of randomization) at eight sites in four European countries will be randomly allocated using an unbalanced 2:1 ratio to one of two conditions: (a) the experimental condition, in which participants receive a Digital Mobile Mental Health intervention (DMMH) and other implementation strategies in addition to treatment as usual (TAU) or (b) the control condition, in which service users are provided with TAU. Outcome data in service users and clinicians will be collected at four time points: at baseline (t0), 2-month post-baseline (t1), 6-month post-baseline (t2), and 12-month post-baseline (t3). The primary outcome will be patient-reported service engagement assessed with the service attachment questionnaire at 2-month post-baseline. The process and economic evaluation will provide in-depth insights into in-vivo context-mechanism-outcome configurations and economic costs of the DMMH and other implementation strategies in routine care, respectively.

DISCUSSION: If this trial provides evidence on reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation and maintenance of implementing ESM-based monitoring, reporting, and feedback, it will form the basis for establishing its public health impact and has significant potential to bridge the research-to-practice gap and contribute to swifter ecological translation of digital innovations to real-world delivery in routine mental health care.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN15109760 (ISRCTN registry, date: 03/08/2022).

Original languageEnglish
Article number465
Number of pages11
JournalBMC Psychiatry
Volume24
Issue number1
Early online date24 Jun 2024
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 24 Jun 2024

Keywords

  • Ecological Momentary Assessment
  • Experience Sampling Method
  • mHealth

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health

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