STAT1 is an essential transcription factor for macrophage activation by IFN-γ and requires phosphorylation of the C-terminal Ser727 for transcriptional activity. In macrophages, Ser727 phosphorylation in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), UV irradiation, or TNF-α occurred through a signaling path sensitive to the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MARK) inhibitor SB203580 whereas IFN-γ-mediated Ser727 phosphorylation was not inhibited by the drug. Consistently, SB203580 did not affect IFN-γ-mediated, Stat1-dependent transcription but inhibited its enhancement by LPS. Furthermore, LPS, UV irradiation, and TNF-α caused activation of p38 MAPK whereas IFN-γ did not. An essential role for p38 MAPK activity in STAT1 Ser727 phosphorylation was confirmed by using cells expressing an SB203580-resistant p38 MAPK. In such cells, STAT1 Ser727 phosphorylation in response to UV irradiation was found to be SB203580 insensitive. Targeted disruption of the mapkap-k2 gene, encoding a kinase downstream of p38 MAPK with a key role in LPS-stimulated TNF-α production and stress-induced heat shock protein 25 phosphorylation, was without a significant effect on UV-mediated Ser727 phosphorylation. The recombinant Stat1 C terminus was phosphorylated in vitro by p38MAPKα and β but not by MAPK-activated protein kinase 2. Janus kinase 2 activity, previously reported to be required for IFN-γ-mediated Ser727 phosphorylation, was not needed for LPS-mediated Ser727 phosphorylation, and activation of Janus kinase 2 did not cause the appearance of STAT1 Ser727 kinase activity. Our data suggest that STAT1 is phosphorylated at Ser727 by a stress-activated signaling pathway either through p38 MAPK directly or through an unidentified kinase downstream of P38MAPK.
|Number of pages
|Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
|Published - 23 Nov 1999
ASJC Scopus subject areas