Stress is unavoidable and essential to cellular and organismal evolution and failure to adapt or restore homeostasis can lead to severe diseases or even death. At the cellular level, stress drives a plethora of molecular changes, of which variations in the profile of protein post-translational modifications plays a key role in mediating the adaptative response of the genome and proteome to stress. In this context, post-translational modification of proteins by ubiquitin-like modifiers, (Ubl), notably SUMO, is an essential stress response mechanism. In this review, aiming to draw universal concepts of the Ubls stress response, we will decipher how stress alters the expression level, activity, specificity and/or localization of the proteins involved in the conjugation pathways of the various type-I Ubls, and how this result in the modification of particular Ubl targets that will translate an adaptive physiological stress response and allow cells to restore homeostasis.
- Post-translational modification
- Stress response
- Ubiquitin-interacting motif
- Ubiquitin-like modifier