Structural insights into the distinct binding mode of cyclic Di-AMP with SaCpaA-RCK

Ko Hsin Chin, Juin-Ming Liang, Jauo-Guey Yang, Min-Shao Shih, Zhi-Le Tu, Yu-Chuang Wang, Xing-Han Sun, Nien-Jen Hu, Zhao-Xun Liang, J. Maxwell Dow, Robert P. Ryan, Shan-Ho Chou (Lead / Corresponding author)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

41 Citations (Scopus)


Cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP) is a relatively new member of the family of bacterial cyclic dinucleotide second messengers. It has attracted significant attention in recent years because of the abundant roles it plays in a variety of Gram-positive bacteria. The structural features that allow diverse bacterial proteins to bind c-di-AMP are not fully understood. Here we report the biophysical and structural studies of c-di-AMP in complex with a bacterial cation-proton antiporter (CpaA) RCK (regulator of the conductance of K<sup>+</sup>) protein from Staphylococcus aureus (Sa). The crystal structure of the SaCpaA-RCK C-terminal domain (CTD) in complex with c-di-AMP was determined to a resolution of 1.81 Å. This structure revealed two well-liganded water molecules, each interacting with one of the adenine bases by a unique H<inf>2</inf>O<inf>lp</inf>-π interaction to stabilize the complex. Sequence blasting using the SaCpaA-RCK primary sequence against the bacterial genome database returned many CpaA analogues, and alignment of these sequences revealed that the active site residues are all well-conserved, indicating a universal c-di-AMP binding mode for CpaA-RCK. A proteoliposome activity assay using the full-length SaCpaA membrane protein indicated that c-di-AMP binding alters its antiporter activity by approximately 40%. A comparison of this structure to all other reported c-di-AMP-receptor complex structures revealed that c-di-AMP binds to receptors in either a "U-shape" or "V-shape" mode. The two adenine rings are stabilized in the inner interaction zone by a variety of CH-π, cation-π, backbone-π, or H<inf>2</inf>O<inf>lp</inf>-π interaction, but more commonly in the outer interaction zone by hydrophobic CH-π or π-π interaction. The structures determined to date provide an understanding of the mechanisms by which a single c-di-AMP can interact with a variety of receptor proteins, and how c-di-AMP binds receptor proteins in a special way different from that of c-di-GMP.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4936-4951
Number of pages16
Issue number31
Publication statusPublished - 11 Aug 2015

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry


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