The development of the pharmaceutical industry, driven by progress in chemistry, biology, and technology, ranks as one of the most successful of human endeavors. However, serious health problems persist, among which are diseases caused by protozoan parasites, largely ignored in modern times. Advances in genomic sciences, molecular and structural biology, and computational and medicinal chemistry now set the scene for a renewed assault on such infections. A structure-centric approach to support discovery of antiparasitic compounds promises much. Current strategies and benefits of a structure-based approach to support early stage drug discovery will be described.