Widespread damage within urban centres has highlighted the need to better understand seismic structure-soil-structure interaction (SSSI), particularly given population growth and increasing urbanisation. This paper will explore the performance of low-rise structures when the presence of adjacent structures is explicitly accounted for, based on centrifuge model tests and validated Finite Element analysis. The sensitivity of SSSI to pre-earthquake initial conditions (particularly tilt of foundations) and subsequent evolution of these due to successive earthquakes will be demonstrated, along with sensitivity to the relative dynamic characteristics of the adjacent structures (e.g. changing the urban environment to address urbanisation). Sensitivity to position within a larger group of adjacent structures will also be investigated along with the subsequent impact of building underground infrastructure for urban mass-transit systems. The results presented will demonstrate the importance of accurately describing and modelling the surrounding urban environment in soil-structure interaction analyses, in order to understand the future influence of increasing urbanisation on seismic hazard within populous areas.