Background: The β-lactam antibiotics represent the most successful drug class for treatment of bacterial infections. Resistance to them, importantly via production of β-lactamases, which collectively are able to hydrolyse all classes of β-lactams, threatens their continued widespread use. Bicyclic boronates show potential as broad spectrum inhibitors of the mechanistically distinct serine- (SBL) and metallo- (MBL) β-lactamase families.
Methods: Using biophysical methods, including crystallographic analysis, we have investigated the binding mode of bicyclic boronates to clinically important β-lactamases. Induction experiments and agar-based MIC screening against MDR-Enterobacteriaceae (n = 132) were used to evaluate induction properties and the in vitro efficacy of a bicyclic boronate in combination with meropenem.
Results: Crystallographic analysis of a bicyclic boronate in complex with AmpC from Pseudomonas aeruginosa reveals it binds to form a tetrahedral boronate species. Microbiological studies on the clinical coverage (in combination with meropenem) and induction of β-lactamases by bicyclic boronates further support the promise of such compounds as broad spectrum β-lactamase inhibitors.
Conclusions: Together with reported studies on the structural basis of their inhibition of class A, B and D β-lactamases, biophysical studies, including crystallographic analysis, support the proposal that bicyclic boronates mimic tetrahedral intermediates common to SBL and MBL catalysis.
General Significance: Bicyclic boronates are a new generation of broad spectrum inhibitors of both SBLs and MBLs.
- Antimicrobial clinical coverage
- Cyclic boronate inhibitors
- Metallo and serine β-lactamase inhibition
- Transition state analogue
- β-lactam antibiotic resistance
- β-lactamase induction