Suitability of cement combinations for carbonation resistance of structural concrete

Samuel Olufemi Folagbade, Moray David Newlands

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    4 Citations (Scopus)


    Purpose: This paper aims to assess the suitability of cement combination containing CEM I, fly ash, silica fume and metakaolin for durability design against carbonation-induced corrosion in concrete.

    Design/methodology/approach: Cube compressive strengths at 28 days and accelerated carbonation depths at 28 days and at various exposure ages were determined at the water/cement ratios of 0.35, 0.50 and 0.65. To assess their suitability for carbonation-induced corrosion, the material costs and embodied carbon dioxide (eCO2) contents of the concretes at equivalent performance were compared.

    Findings: Cement combination concretes achieved equal carbonation resistance with CEM I at higher compressive strengths, lower water/cement ratios and higher cement contents. The comparison of the concretes, at equivalent performance, based on the carbonation-induced corrosion exposure classes XC3 and XC4 (Table A.4 of BS 8500-1), shows that ternary and more binary cement concretes have lower costs and eCO2 contents than those recommended in Table A.6 of BS 8500-1.

    Research limitations/implications: This analysis is limited to a working life of 50 years. Further research is needed to verify the suitability of the cement combinations for a working life of 100 years and for the other aspects of durability design covered in BS 8500.

    Practical implications: Cement combination concretes have lower eCO2 content. Hence, when they are cheaper than CEM I concrete at equivalent performance, they would make concrete construction more economic and environmentally compatible.

    Originality/value: This research suggests the inclusion of metakaolin and ternary cement combination concretes in BS 8500 for durability design against carbonation-induced corrosion.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)523-539
    Number of pages17
    JournalJournal of Engineering, Design and Technology
    Issue number4
    Publication statusPublished - 30 Sept 2014


    • Carbonation
    • Cement combination
    • Concrete durability
    • Corrosion

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • General Engineering


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