Background The most appropriate management of incidental prostate cancers diagnosed at transurethral resection of prostate has been debated. It is important to determine the long-term outcomes to establish an appropriate management in patients with incidental prostate cancer.
Aims We aim to determine 10-year survival and to identify the factors of worse prognosis of incidental prostate cancers diagnosed at transurethral resection of prostate.
Methods A retrospective analysis of patients with pT1a-pT1b prostate cancers diagnosed between 1998 and 2003. Medical notes, PSA and pathology results were reviewed. Overall and cancer specific survival was calculated at mean 10-year follow-up.
Results Sixty patients with incidental prostate cancer were identified (pT1a = 18, pT1b = 42). Fifty-one percents of the patients were managed on a watchful waiting strategy with overall 84% survival and 9.7% cancer specific mortality. Twenty patients (all with pT1b) received hormone therapy. Overall survival in this cohort was 50% with 20% cancer specific mortality. Nine patients received curative therapy (Radical prostatectomy = 4, Radiotherapy = 5). In this group, overall survival was 88% with no cancer specific mortality.
Conclusions Stage pT1a disease and preoperative low PSA were associated with favourable survival. However, for pT1b and/or high Gleason score (>= 7), mortality was comparatively higher. Hence, patients with high Gleason score and/or pT1b disease should be considered for curative therapy. Additionally, active surveillance may have a role in selected men with incidental prostate cancer.