Methods: A mixed-methods study was conducted following the first two steps of the Behaviour Change Wheel framework. First, an expert stakeholder consultation identified behaviours involved in self-management of type 1 diabetes. Second, three evidence sources (systematic review, healthcare provider-generated ‘red flags’ and participant-generated ‘frequently asked questions’) were analysed to identify and synthesise modifiable barriers and enablers to sustained self-management. These were characterised according to the Capability-Opportunity-Motivation-Behaviour (COM-B) model.
Results: 150 distinct behaviours were identified and organised into three self-regulatory behavioural cycles, reflecting different temporal and situational aspects of diabetes selfmanagement: Routine (e.g. checking blood glucose), Reactive (e.g. treating hypoglycaemia) and Reflective (e.g. reviewing blood glucose data to identify patterns). Thirty-four barriers and five enablers were identified: 10 relating to Capability, 20 to Opportunity and nine to Motivation.
Conclusions: Multiple behaviours within three self-management cycles are involved in sustained type 1 diabetes self-management. There are a wide range of barriers and enablers that should be addressed to support self-management behaviours and improve clinical outcomes. The present study provides an evidence base for refining and developing type 1 diabetes self-management programmes.
- Type 1 diabetes
- health behaviour
- health education
- structured education
- behaviour change