Swietenine Alleviates Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Diabetic Mice via Lipogenesis Inhibition and Antioxidant Mechanisms

Kit-kay Mak, Shiming Zhang, Jestin Chellian, Zulkefeli Mohd, Ola Epemolu, Albena T. Dinkova-Kostova, Madhu Katyayani Balijepalli, Mallikarjuna Rao Pichika (Lead / Corresponding author)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
52 Downloads (Pure)


Our previous studies have reported the effect of swietenine (a major bioactive component of Swietenia macrophylla seeds) in reversing and potentiating the effect of metformin in hyperglycemia and hyperlipidaemia in diabetic rats. Moreover, we reported that the anti-inflammatory effect of swietenine is mediated via the activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). This study evaluated the effect of swietenine and its mechanisms in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in high-fat diet/streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. The effect was assessed by determining blood biochemical parameters (glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, alanine transaminase (ALT), asparate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutathione (GSH), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and malondialdehyde (MDA)) and liver biochemical parameters (liver index, cholesterol, and triglycerides). Hepatic lipid accumulation (initial causative factor in NAFLD) was determined by oil-O-red staining. Gene expression (qPCR) and immunohistochemical studies were performed to elucidate the mechanism of swietenine’s effect in NAFLD. The critical regulators (genes and proteins) involved in lipogenesis (ACLY, ACC1, FASN, SREBP1c, and ChREBPβ) and oxidative stress (Nrf2, NQO-1 and HO-1) pathways were determined. In mice fed with a high-fat diet followed by streptozotocin injection, the liver cholesterol, triglycerides, and lipids were elevated. These increases were reversed by the oral administration of swietenine, 80 mg/kg body weight, on alternate days for eight weeks. Gene expression and immunohistochemical studies showed that swietenine reversed the elevated levels of crucial enzymes of lipogenesis (ACLY, ACC1 and FASN) and their master transcription factors (SREBP1c and ChREBPβ). Furthermore, swietenine activated the Nrf2 antioxidant defense mechanism, as evidenced by the upregulated levels of Nrf2, NQO-1, and HO-1. It is concluded that swietenine shows beneficial effects in diabetes-induced NAFLD via inhibiting lipogenesis and activating the Nrf2 pathway.
Original languageEnglish
Article number595
Number of pages14
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 27 Feb 2023


  • swietenine
  • swietenia macrophylla
  • diabetes
  • lipogenesis
  • NRF2
  • oxidative stress

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Molecular Biology
  • Physiology
  • Biochemistry
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Cell Biology


Dive into the research topics of 'Swietenine Alleviates Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Diabetic Mice via Lipogenesis Inhibition and Antioxidant Mechanisms'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this