Switching from paper to electronic bills of lading: Part 2. Fundamental Sociological Structure, Distributed Ledger Technology And Legal Difficulties

Mohd Hwaidi, Graham Ferris

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


The previous part of this article proposed a conceptual framework for a sociological understanding of the uses of bills of lading. We argued that platforms that aim to facilitate an electronic format of bills of lading should be based upon the constituent components of the practices associated with paper bills of lading. In this second part of the article we suggest that Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT), including blockchains, is the best technological means for facilitating the use in practice of immaterial bills of lading. The appropriate type of DLT is then evaluated in light of expected legal difficulties.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of International Martime Law
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2020



  • Electronic bills of lading
  • norms and law
  • social structure
  • legal issues on Distributed Ledger Technology

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