Recent advances in high power, pulsed, light emitting diodes (LEDs) have shown potential as fast, robust and relatively inexpensive excitation sources for photoacoustic imaging (PAI), yet systematic characterization of performance for biomedical imaging is still lacking. We report here technical and biological validation studies of a commercial dual-wavelength LED-based PAI and ultrasound system. Phantoms and small animals were used to assess temporal precision. In phantom studies, we found high temporal stability of the LED-based PAI system, with no significant drift in performance observed during 6 h of operation or over 30 days of repeated measurements. In vivo dual-wavelength imaging was able to map the dynamics of changes in blood oxygenation during oxygen-enhanced imaging and reveal the kinetics of indocyanine green contrast agent inflow after intravenous administration (Tmax∼6 min). Taken together, these studies indicate that LED-based excitation could be promising for future application in functional and molecular PAI.
- Light emitting diodes