Objective: Epistaxis is a common ENT emergency in the UK; however, despite the high incidence, there are currently no nationally accepted guidelines for its management. This paper seeks to recommend evidence-based best practice for the hospital management of epistaxis in adults.
Methods: Recommendations were developed using an Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation ('AGREE II') framework. A multifaceted systematic review of the relevant literature was performed and a multidisciplinary consensus event held. Management recommendations were generated that linked the level of supporting evidence and a Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation ('GRADE') score explaining the strength of recommendation.
Recommendations: Despite a paucity of high-level evidence, management recommendations were formed across five management domains (initial assessment, cautery, intranasal agents, haematological factors, and surgery and radiological intervention).
Conclusion: These consensus recommendations combine a wide-ranging review of the relevant literature with established and rigorous methods of guideline generation. Given the lack of high-level evidence supporting the recommendations, an element of caution should be used when implementing these findings.