The hordeiviral movement protein encoded by the first gene of the triple gene block (TGBp1) of Poa semilatent virus (PSLV), interacts with viral genomic RNAs to form RNP particles which are considered to be a form of viral genome capable of cell-to-cell and long-distance transport in infected plants. The PSLV TGBp1 contains a C-terminal NTPase/helicase domain (HELD) and an N-terminal extension region consisting of two structurally and functionally distinct domains: an extreme N-terminal domain (NTD) and an internal domain (ID). This study demonstrates that transient expression of TGBp1 fused to GFP in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves results in faint but obvious fluorescence in the nucleolus in addition to cytosolic distribution. Mutagenesis of the basic amino acids inside the NTD clusters A (KSKRKKKNKK125)-K-116 and B (175)KKATKKESKKQTK(187) reveals that these clusters are indispensable for nuclear and nucleolar targeting of PSLV TGBp1 and may contain nuclear and nucleolar localization signals or their elements. The PSLV TGBp1 is able to bind to fibrillarin, the major nucleolar protein (AtFib2 from Arabidopsis thaliana) in vitro. This protein-protein interaction occurs between the glycine-arginine-rich (GAR) domain of fibrillarin and the first 82 amino acid residues of TGBp1. The interaction of TGBp1 with fibrillarin is also visualized in vivo by bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) during co-expression of TGBp1 or its deletion mutants, and fibrillarin as fusions to different halves of YFP in N. benthamiana plants. The sites responsible for nuclear/nucleolar localization and fibrillarin binding, have been located within the intrinsically disordered TGBp1 NTD. These data could suggest that specific functions of hordeivirus TGBp1 may depend on its interaction with nucleolar components. (C) 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.