The Impact of Different Magnetic Resonance Imaging Equipment and Scanning Parameters on Signal Intensity Ratio Measurements in Phantoms and Healthy Volunteers: Implications for Interpreting Gadolinium Signal Changes Within the Brain

Laura Young, Stephen Gandy, Lukasz Priba, Shona Matthew, John Houston (Lead / Corresponding author)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the variation in signal intensity ratio (SIR) values in Eurospin gel phantoms and healthy volunteer (HV) brain images in response to different magnetic resonance imaging hardware and software settings.

Materials and Methods: Gel phantoms with T1 relaxation times similar to the dentate nucleus (DN), pons (P), globus palladus (GP), and thalamus (Th) were scanned using a T1-weighted 2-dimensional spin-echo sequence on 2 magnetic resonance imaging scanners (3 T and 1.5 T). Imaging was performed by sequentially altering selected magnetic resonance (MR) parameters relative to a default pulse sequence, and the protocol was implemented repeatedly over 3 months. The experiment was also repeated on a cohort of 15 young HVs. Calculations of DN/P and GP/Th SIR values were derived for the images of the gels (GelDN/P and GelGP/Th) and the HVs (HVDN/P and HVGP/Th).

Results: For the default sequence, the mean SIR values of GelDN/P and GelGP/Th varied by ±2.20% and ±0.75%, respectively, when measured over multiple imaging sessions (3 T). Within a single imaging session, these variations were smaller (±0.17% for GelDN/P and ±0.15% for GelGP/Th). At 1.5 T, the equivalent SIR variations for GelDN/P were ± 1.41% (multiple sessions) and ±0.41% (single session), and that for GelGP/Th were ±0.47% (multiple sessions) and ±0.33% (single session).Sequential changes to the MR sequence parameters resulted in gel SIR variations as follows: 14.07% ± 2.43% (with/without normalization filters), -7.80% ± 0.28% (different echo times, TE), and -5.06% ± 0.59% (selective activation of RF coil elements). The largest variations were noted when the gels were positioned below the scanner isocenter, where SIR measurements were different by 22%.For the HVs, the SIR values were found to be consistently within 0.64% (single session) for the default sequence. Sequential changes to the MR sequence parameters resulted in SIR variations of -24.47% ± 2.47% (with/without normalization filters), -15.32% ± 7.71% (different echo times, TE), and -2.90% ± 0.78% (selective activation of RF coil elements).

Conclusions: This study has demonstrated that SIR percentage changes from baseline of a similar magnitude to brain gadolinium contrast agent signal hyperintensities can be replicated in phantom models and HVs by altering common MR acquisition parameters and hardware.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)169-176
Number of pages8
JournalInvestigative Radiology
Volume54
Issue number3
Early online date2 Nov 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2019

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Gadolinium
Thalamus
Healthy Volunteers
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Equipment and Supplies
Brain
Gels
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Cerebellar Nuclei
Pons
Protein Sorting Signals
Contrast Media
Software

Keywords

  • MRI
  • brain
  • contrast
  • gadolinium
  • hypersignal
  • phantom
  • volunteer

Cite this

@article{4977c440da944ddba599a4d993120bfa,
title = "The Impact of Different Magnetic Resonance Imaging Equipment and Scanning Parameters on Signal Intensity Ratio Measurements in Phantoms and Healthy Volunteers: Implications for Interpreting Gadolinium Signal Changes Within the Brain",
abstract = "Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the variation in signal intensity ratio (SIR) values in Eurospin gel phantoms and healthy volunteer (HV) brain images in response to different magnetic resonance imaging hardware and software settings.Materials and Methods: Gel phantoms with T1 relaxation times similar to the dentate nucleus (DN), pons (P), globus palladus (GP), and thalamus (Th) were scanned using a T1-weighted 2-dimensional spin-echo sequence on 2 magnetic resonance imaging scanners (3 T and 1.5 T). Imaging was performed by sequentially altering selected magnetic resonance (MR) parameters relative to a default pulse sequence, and the protocol was implemented repeatedly over 3 months. The experiment was also repeated on a cohort of 15 young HVs. Calculations of DN/P and GP/Th SIR values were derived for the images of the gels (GelDN/P and GelGP/Th) and the HVs (HVDN/P and HVGP/Th).Results: For the default sequence, the mean SIR values of GelDN/P and GelGP/Th varied by ±2.20{\%} and ±0.75{\%}, respectively, when measured over multiple imaging sessions (3 T). Within a single imaging session, these variations were smaller (±0.17{\%} for GelDN/P and ±0.15{\%} for GelGP/Th). At 1.5 T, the equivalent SIR variations for GelDN/P were ± 1.41{\%} (multiple sessions) and ±0.41{\%} (single session), and that for GelGP/Th were ±0.47{\%} (multiple sessions) and ±0.33{\%} (single session).Sequential changes to the MR sequence parameters resulted in gel SIR variations as follows: 14.07{\%} ± 2.43{\%} (with/without normalization filters), -7.80{\%} ± 0.28{\%} (different echo times, TE), and -5.06{\%} ± 0.59{\%} (selective activation of RF coil elements). The largest variations were noted when the gels were positioned below the scanner isocenter, where SIR measurements were different by 22{\%}.For the HVs, the SIR values were found to be consistently within 0.64{\%} (single session) for the default sequence. Sequential changes to the MR sequence parameters resulted in SIR variations of -24.47{\%} ± 2.47{\%} (with/without normalization filters), -15.32{\%} ± 7.71{\%} (different echo times, TE), and -2.90{\%} ± 0.78{\%} (selective activation of RF coil elements).Conclusions: This study has demonstrated that SIR percentage changes from baseline of a similar magnitude to brain gadolinium contrast agent signal hyperintensities can be replicated in phantom models and HVs by altering common MR acquisition parameters and hardware.",
keywords = "MRI, brain, contrast, gadolinium, hypersignal, phantom, volunteer",
author = "Laura Young and Stephen Gandy and Lukasz Priba and Shona Matthew and John Houston",
note = "Financial support for the study was provided via the ‘Renal Dialysis for Venous Access (ReDVA)’ project (a European Union’s 7th Framework Program grant agreement no. 324487). The authors would like to state that we have received funding from Guerbet. LY is currently receiving PhD sponsorship, while SM and GH have previously received research and educational support grants. Guerbet however were not involved in the study or publication processes.",
year = "2019",
month = "3",
doi = "10.1097/RLI.0000000000000526",
language = "English",
volume = "54",
pages = "169--176",
journal = "Investigative Radiology",
issn = "0020-9996",
publisher = "Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - The Impact of Different Magnetic Resonance Imaging Equipment and Scanning Parameters on Signal Intensity Ratio Measurements in Phantoms and Healthy Volunteers

T2 - Implications for Interpreting Gadolinium Signal Changes Within the Brain

AU - Young, Laura

AU - Gandy, Stephen

AU - Priba, Lukasz

AU - Matthew, Shona

AU - Houston, John

N1 - Financial support for the study was provided via the ‘Renal Dialysis for Venous Access (ReDVA)’ project (a European Union’s 7th Framework Program grant agreement no. 324487). The authors would like to state that we have received funding from Guerbet. LY is currently receiving PhD sponsorship, while SM and GH have previously received research and educational support grants. Guerbet however were not involved in the study or publication processes.

PY - 2019/3

Y1 - 2019/3

N2 - Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the variation in signal intensity ratio (SIR) values in Eurospin gel phantoms and healthy volunteer (HV) brain images in response to different magnetic resonance imaging hardware and software settings.Materials and Methods: Gel phantoms with T1 relaxation times similar to the dentate nucleus (DN), pons (P), globus palladus (GP), and thalamus (Th) were scanned using a T1-weighted 2-dimensional spin-echo sequence on 2 magnetic resonance imaging scanners (3 T and 1.5 T). Imaging was performed by sequentially altering selected magnetic resonance (MR) parameters relative to a default pulse sequence, and the protocol was implemented repeatedly over 3 months. The experiment was also repeated on a cohort of 15 young HVs. Calculations of DN/P and GP/Th SIR values were derived for the images of the gels (GelDN/P and GelGP/Th) and the HVs (HVDN/P and HVGP/Th).Results: For the default sequence, the mean SIR values of GelDN/P and GelGP/Th varied by ±2.20% and ±0.75%, respectively, when measured over multiple imaging sessions (3 T). Within a single imaging session, these variations were smaller (±0.17% for GelDN/P and ±0.15% for GelGP/Th). At 1.5 T, the equivalent SIR variations for GelDN/P were ± 1.41% (multiple sessions) and ±0.41% (single session), and that for GelGP/Th were ±0.47% (multiple sessions) and ±0.33% (single session).Sequential changes to the MR sequence parameters resulted in gel SIR variations as follows: 14.07% ± 2.43% (with/without normalization filters), -7.80% ± 0.28% (different echo times, TE), and -5.06% ± 0.59% (selective activation of RF coil elements). The largest variations were noted when the gels were positioned below the scanner isocenter, where SIR measurements were different by 22%.For the HVs, the SIR values were found to be consistently within 0.64% (single session) for the default sequence. Sequential changes to the MR sequence parameters resulted in SIR variations of -24.47% ± 2.47% (with/without normalization filters), -15.32% ± 7.71% (different echo times, TE), and -2.90% ± 0.78% (selective activation of RF coil elements).Conclusions: This study has demonstrated that SIR percentage changes from baseline of a similar magnitude to brain gadolinium contrast agent signal hyperintensities can be replicated in phantom models and HVs by altering common MR acquisition parameters and hardware.

AB - Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the variation in signal intensity ratio (SIR) values in Eurospin gel phantoms and healthy volunteer (HV) brain images in response to different magnetic resonance imaging hardware and software settings.Materials and Methods: Gel phantoms with T1 relaxation times similar to the dentate nucleus (DN), pons (P), globus palladus (GP), and thalamus (Th) were scanned using a T1-weighted 2-dimensional spin-echo sequence on 2 magnetic resonance imaging scanners (3 T and 1.5 T). Imaging was performed by sequentially altering selected magnetic resonance (MR) parameters relative to a default pulse sequence, and the protocol was implemented repeatedly over 3 months. The experiment was also repeated on a cohort of 15 young HVs. Calculations of DN/P and GP/Th SIR values were derived for the images of the gels (GelDN/P and GelGP/Th) and the HVs (HVDN/P and HVGP/Th).Results: For the default sequence, the mean SIR values of GelDN/P and GelGP/Th varied by ±2.20% and ±0.75%, respectively, when measured over multiple imaging sessions (3 T). Within a single imaging session, these variations were smaller (±0.17% for GelDN/P and ±0.15% for GelGP/Th). At 1.5 T, the equivalent SIR variations for GelDN/P were ± 1.41% (multiple sessions) and ±0.41% (single session), and that for GelGP/Th were ±0.47% (multiple sessions) and ±0.33% (single session).Sequential changes to the MR sequence parameters resulted in gel SIR variations as follows: 14.07% ± 2.43% (with/without normalization filters), -7.80% ± 0.28% (different echo times, TE), and -5.06% ± 0.59% (selective activation of RF coil elements). The largest variations were noted when the gels were positioned below the scanner isocenter, where SIR measurements were different by 22%.For the HVs, the SIR values were found to be consistently within 0.64% (single session) for the default sequence. Sequential changes to the MR sequence parameters resulted in SIR variations of -24.47% ± 2.47% (with/without normalization filters), -15.32% ± 7.71% (different echo times, TE), and -2.90% ± 0.78% (selective activation of RF coil elements).Conclusions: This study has demonstrated that SIR percentage changes from baseline of a similar magnitude to brain gadolinium contrast agent signal hyperintensities can be replicated in phantom models and HVs by altering common MR acquisition parameters and hardware.

KW - MRI

KW - brain

KW - contrast

KW - gadolinium

KW - hypersignal

KW - phantom

KW - volunteer

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DO - 10.1097/RLI.0000000000000526

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