Most dendritic cell (DC) responses to Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands depend on the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), but the contributions of the many MAPK-activated kinases (MKs) that act 'downstream' of the MAPKs Erk and p38 are not known. Here we sought to determine which MKs are required for acute TLR-driven, MAPK-dependent DC endocytic responses. Two specific and structurally different inhibitors of the MK Rsk suppressed TLR-induced endocytosis, thus defining in DCs a specific requirement for MKs in TLR responses. In addition, we identify in DCs a previously unknown configuration of the MAPK system whereby Rsk is activated not only by Erk but also by p38 through the intermediates MK2 and MK3. Thus, in DCs, p38 contributes to the activation of all known MK families.
Zaru, R., Ronkina, N., Gaestel, M., Arthur, S., & Watts, C. (2007). The MAPK-activated kinase Rsk controls an acute Toll-like receptor signaling response in dendritic cells and is activated through two distinct pathways. Nature Immunology, 8(11), 1227-1235. https://doi.org/10.1038/ni1517