The microsporidian parasites Nosema ceranae and Nosema apis are widespread in honeybee (Apis mellifera) colonies across Scotland

Karen A. Bollan, J. Daniel Hothersall, Christopher Moffat, John Durkacz, Nastja Saranzewa, Geraldine A. Wright, Nigel E. Raine, Fiona Highet, Christopher N. Connolly (Lead / Corresponding author)

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    15 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Nosema ceranae is spreading into areas where Nosema apis already exists. N. ceranae has been reported to cause an asymptomatic infection that may lead, ultimately, to colony collapse. It is thought that there may be a temperature barrier to its infiltration into countries in colder climates. In this study, 71 colonies from Scottish Beekeeper's Association members have been screened for the presence of N. apis and N. ceranae across Scotland. We find that only 11 of the 71 colonies tested positive for spores by microscopy. However, 70.4 % of colonies screened by PCR revealed the presence of both N. ceranae and N. apis, with only 4.2 or 7 % having either strain alone and 18.3 % being Nosema free. A range of geographically separated colonies testing positive for N. ceranae were sequenced to confirm their identity. All nine sequences confirmed the presence of N. ceranae and indicated the presence of a single new variant. Furthermore, two of the spore-containing colonies had only N. ceranae present, and these exhibited the presence of smaller spores that could be distinguished from N. apis by the analysis of average spore size. Differential quantification of the PCR product revealed N. ceranae to be the dominant species in all seven samples tested. In conclusion, N. ceranae is widespread in Scotland where it exists in combination with the endemic N. apis. A single variant, identical to that found in France (DQ374655) except for the addition of a single nucleotide polymorphism, is present in Scotland.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)751-759
    Number of pages9
    JournalParasitology Research
    Volume112
    Issue number2
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Feb 2013

    Fingerprint

    Nosema
    Nosema apis
    Nosema ceranae
    Bees
    Microsporidia
    Scotland
    Apis mellifera
    honey bees
    Parasites
    Spores
    parasites
    Colony Collapse
    spores
    Cold Climate
    Polymerase Chain Reaction
    Asymptomatic Infections
    France
    Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
    Microscopy
    beekeepers

    Keywords

    • DISPERSAL
    • APIARIES
    • BEES
    • HYMENOPTERA
    • INFECTION
    • APIDAE
    • EUROPE
    • PATHOGEN
    • COLLAPSE DISORDER
    • TEMPERATURE

    Cite this

    Bollan, Karen A. ; Hothersall, J. Daniel ; Moffat, Christopher ; Durkacz, John ; Saranzewa, Nastja ; Wright, Geraldine A. ; Raine, Nigel E. ; Highet, Fiona ; Connolly, Christopher N. / The microsporidian parasites Nosema ceranae and Nosema apis are widespread in honeybee (Apis mellifera) colonies across Scotland. In: Parasitology Research. 2013 ; Vol. 112, No. 2. pp. 751-759.
    @article{c5b093dce829468285d1f209f4d965a9,
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    abstract = "Nosema ceranae is spreading into areas where Nosema apis already exists. N. ceranae has been reported to cause an asymptomatic infection that may lead, ultimately, to colony collapse. It is thought that there may be a temperature barrier to its infiltration into countries in colder climates. In this study, 71 colonies from Scottish Beekeeper's Association members have been screened for the presence of N. apis and N. ceranae across Scotland. We find that only 11 of the 71 colonies tested positive for spores by microscopy. However, 70.4 {\%} of colonies screened by PCR revealed the presence of both N. ceranae and N. apis, with only 4.2 or 7 {\%} having either strain alone and 18.3 {\%} being Nosema free. A range of geographically separated colonies testing positive for N. ceranae were sequenced to confirm their identity. All nine sequences confirmed the presence of N. ceranae and indicated the presence of a single new variant. Furthermore, two of the spore-containing colonies had only N. ceranae present, and these exhibited the presence of smaller spores that could be distinguished from N. apis by the analysis of average spore size. Differential quantification of the PCR product revealed N. ceranae to be the dominant species in all seven samples tested. In conclusion, N. ceranae is widespread in Scotland where it exists in combination with the endemic N. apis. A single variant, identical to that found in France (DQ374655) except for the addition of a single nucleotide polymorphism, is present in Scotland.",
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    author = "Bollan, {Karen A.} and Hothersall, {J. Daniel} and Christopher Moffat and John Durkacz and Nastja Saranzewa and Wright, {Geraldine A.} and Raine, {Nigel E.} and Fiona Highet and Connolly, {Christopher N.}",
    year = "2013",
    month = "2",
    doi = "10.1007/s00436-012-3195-0",
    language = "English",
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    Bollan, KA, Hothersall, JD, Moffat, C, Durkacz, J, Saranzewa, N, Wright, GA, Raine, NE, Highet, F & Connolly, CN 2013, 'The microsporidian parasites Nosema ceranae and Nosema apis are widespread in honeybee (Apis mellifera) colonies across Scotland', Parasitology Research, vol. 112, no. 2, pp. 751-759. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-012-3195-0

    The microsporidian parasites Nosema ceranae and Nosema apis are widespread in honeybee (Apis mellifera) colonies across Scotland. / Bollan, Karen A.; Hothersall, J. Daniel; Moffat, Christopher; Durkacz, John; Saranzewa, Nastja; Wright, Geraldine A.; Raine, Nigel E.; Highet, Fiona; Connolly, Christopher N. (Lead / Corresponding author).

    In: Parasitology Research, Vol. 112, No. 2, 02.2013, p. 751-759.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - The microsporidian parasites Nosema ceranae and Nosema apis are widespread in honeybee (Apis mellifera) colonies across Scotland

    AU - Bollan, Karen A.

    AU - Hothersall, J. Daniel

    AU - Moffat, Christopher

    AU - Durkacz, John

    AU - Saranzewa, Nastja

    AU - Wright, Geraldine A.

    AU - Raine, Nigel E.

    AU - Highet, Fiona

    AU - Connolly, Christopher N.

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    N2 - Nosema ceranae is spreading into areas where Nosema apis already exists. N. ceranae has been reported to cause an asymptomatic infection that may lead, ultimately, to colony collapse. It is thought that there may be a temperature barrier to its infiltration into countries in colder climates. In this study, 71 colonies from Scottish Beekeeper's Association members have been screened for the presence of N. apis and N. ceranae across Scotland. We find that only 11 of the 71 colonies tested positive for spores by microscopy. However, 70.4 % of colonies screened by PCR revealed the presence of both N. ceranae and N. apis, with only 4.2 or 7 % having either strain alone and 18.3 % being Nosema free. A range of geographically separated colonies testing positive for N. ceranae were sequenced to confirm their identity. All nine sequences confirmed the presence of N. ceranae and indicated the presence of a single new variant. Furthermore, two of the spore-containing colonies had only N. ceranae present, and these exhibited the presence of smaller spores that could be distinguished from N. apis by the analysis of average spore size. Differential quantification of the PCR product revealed N. ceranae to be the dominant species in all seven samples tested. In conclusion, N. ceranae is widespread in Scotland where it exists in combination with the endemic N. apis. A single variant, identical to that found in France (DQ374655) except for the addition of a single nucleotide polymorphism, is present in Scotland.

    AB - Nosema ceranae is spreading into areas where Nosema apis already exists. N. ceranae has been reported to cause an asymptomatic infection that may lead, ultimately, to colony collapse. It is thought that there may be a temperature barrier to its infiltration into countries in colder climates. In this study, 71 colonies from Scottish Beekeeper's Association members have been screened for the presence of N. apis and N. ceranae across Scotland. We find that only 11 of the 71 colonies tested positive for spores by microscopy. However, 70.4 % of colonies screened by PCR revealed the presence of both N. ceranae and N. apis, with only 4.2 or 7 % having either strain alone and 18.3 % being Nosema free. A range of geographically separated colonies testing positive for N. ceranae were sequenced to confirm their identity. All nine sequences confirmed the presence of N. ceranae and indicated the presence of a single new variant. Furthermore, two of the spore-containing colonies had only N. ceranae present, and these exhibited the presence of smaller spores that could be distinguished from N. apis by the analysis of average spore size. Differential quantification of the PCR product revealed N. ceranae to be the dominant species in all seven samples tested. In conclusion, N. ceranae is widespread in Scotland where it exists in combination with the endemic N. apis. A single variant, identical to that found in France (DQ374655) except for the addition of a single nucleotide polymorphism, is present in Scotland.

    KW - DISPERSAL

    KW - APIARIES

    KW - BEES

    KW - HYMENOPTERA

    KW - INFECTION

    KW - APIDAE

    KW - EUROPE

    KW - PATHOGEN

    KW - COLLAPSE DISORDER

    KW - TEMPERATURE

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