The Na+/Glucose Cotransporter Inhibitor Canagliflozin Activates AMPK by Inhibiting Mitochondrial Function and Increasing Cellular AMP Levels

Simon Hawley, Rebecca J. Ford, Brennan K. Smith, Graeme Gowans, Sarah J. Mancini, Ryan D. Pitt, Emily A. Day, Ian P. Salt, Gregory R. Steinberg (Lead / Corresponding author), D. Grahame Hardie (Lead / Corresponding author)

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Abstract

Canagliflozin, dapagliflozin and empagliflozin, all recently approved for treatment of Type 2 diabetes, were derived from the natural product phlorizin. They reduce hyperglycemia by inhibiting glucose reuptake by SGLT2 in the kidney, without affecting intestinal glucose uptake by SGLT1. We now report that canagliflozin also activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an effect also seen with phloretin (the aglycone breakdown product of phlorizin), but not to any significant extent with dapagliflozin, empagliflozin or phlorizin. AMPK activation occurred at canagliflozin concentrations measured in human plasma in clinical trials, and was caused by inhibition of Complex I of the respiratory chain, leading to increases in cellular AMP or ADP. Although canagliflozin also inhibited cellular glucose uptake independently of SGLT2, this did not account for AMPK activation. Canagliflozin also inhibited lipid synthesis, an effect that was absent in AMPK knockout cells and that required phosphorylation of ACC1 and/or ACC2 at the AMPK sites. Oral administration of canagliflozin activated AMPK in mouse liver, although not in muscle, adipose tissue or spleen. As phosphorylation of acetyl CoA carboxylase by AMPK is known to lower liver lipid content, these data suggest a potential additional benefit of canagliflozin therapy compared to other SGLT2 inhibitors.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2784-2794
Number of pages11
JournalDiabetes
Volume65
Issue number9
Early online date1 Jul 2016
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2016

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    Hawley, S., Ford, R. J., Smith, B. K., Gowans, G., Mancini, S. J., Pitt, R. D., A. Day, E., Salt, I. P., Steinberg, G. R., & Hardie, D. G. (2016). The Na+/Glucose Cotransporter Inhibitor Canagliflozin Activates AMPK by Inhibiting Mitochondrial Function and Increasing Cellular AMP Levels. Diabetes, 65(9), 2784-2794. https://doi.org/10.2337/db16-0058