Pachyonychia congenita (PC) is an autosomal dominant genodermatosis caused by heterozygous mutations in any one of the genes encoding the differentiation-specific keratins K6a, K6b, K16, or K17. The main clinical features of the condition include painful and highly debilitating plantar keratoderma, hypertrophic nail dystrophy, oral leukokeratosis, and a variety of epidermal cysts. Although the condition has previously been subdivided into PC-1 and PC-2 subtypes, the phenotypic characterization of 1,000 mutation-verified PC patients enrolled in the International PC Research Registry, coordinated by the patient advocacy group PC Project, shows that there is considerable overlap between these subtypes. Thus, a new genotypic nomenclature is proposed, in which PC-6a represents a patient carrying a mutation in the K6a gene, etc. Although a rare disorder, PC represents a good model for therapy development, and international efforts are ongoing to develop and deliver siRNA, gene, correction, small molecule, and other strategies to treat this painful, disabling skin condition. The special relationship between PC Project and the PC research community has greatly accelerated the development pathway from gene identification to clinical trials in only a few years and represents a paradigm of hope for other orphan diseases.