The reliability of the Greulich and Pyle Atlas when applied to a modern Scottish population

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    This study examines the reliability of age estimation utilizing the Greulich and Pyle atlas in relation to a modern Scottish population. A total of 406 left-hand/wrist radiographs (157 females and 249 males) were age-assessed using the Greulich and Pyle atlas. Analysis showed that there was a strong correlation between chronological age and estimated age (females R(2)  = 0.939, males R(2)  = 0.940). When age groups were broken down into year cohorts, the atlas over-aged females from birth until 13 years of age. The pattern for males showed that the atlas under-estimated age until 13 years of age after which point it consistently over-aged boys between 13 and 17 years of age. This study showed that the Greulich and Pyle atlas can be applied to a modern population but would recommend that any analysis takes into account the potential for over- and under-aging shown in this study.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)114-119
    Number of pages6
    JournalJournal of Forensic Sciences
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2013


    • Forensic science
    • Forensic anthropology
    • age estimation
    • radiographs
    • Greulich and Pyle atlas
    • Age assessment living

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  • Student Theses

    Age estimation in the living: a test of 6 radiographic methods

    Author: Hackman, S. L. M. R., 2012

    Supervisor: Black, S. (Supervisor)

    Student thesis: Doctoral ThesisDoctor of Philosophy


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