The substrate specificity and structure of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase-activated protein kinase-2

D. Stokoe, B. Caudwell, P. T.W. Cohen, P. Cohen

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    159 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    The substrate specificity of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase-activated protein kinase-2 (MAPKAP kinase-2) was investigated by using synthetic peptides related to the N-terminus of glycogen synthase. The minimum sequence required for efficient phosphorylation was found to be Xaa-Xaa-Hyd-Xaa-Arg-Xaa-Xaa-Ser-Xaa-Xaa, where Hyd is a bulky hydrophobic residue (Phe > Leu > Val ≥ Ala), and the peptide Lys-Lys-Phe-Asn-Arg-Thr-Leu-Ser-Val-Ala was phosphorylated with a K(m) of 9.3 μM and V(max) of 10 μmol/min per mg. MAPKAP kinase-1 (a homologue of ribosomal protein S6 kinase) also requires an arginine three residues N-terminal to the serine (position n-3), but not a hydrophobic residue at position n-5. Neither MAPKAP kinase-1 nor MAPKAP kinase-2 could tolerate a proline residue at position n + 1, indicating that their specificities do not overlap with that of MAP kinase. The specificity of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase-II resembled that of MAPKAP kinase-2, except that it could tolerate replacement of the arginine by a lysine and the phosphorylation-site serine by a threonine residue. Partial cDNAs encoding MAPKAP kinase-2 were isolated from rabbit and human skeletal muscle and human teratocarcinoma libraries, and Northern-blotting experiments revealed a single 3.3 kb mRNA transcript present at similar levels in six human tissues examined. The catalytic domain was most similar (35-40% identity) to calmodulin-dependent protein kinases II and IV, phosphorylase kinase, putative serine kinase H1 and the C-terminal domain of MAPKAP kinase-1, which form one branch of the protein kinase phylogenetic tree. The sequence N-terminal to the catalytic domain is proline-rich and contains two putative SH3-binding sites. The threonine residue phosphorylated by MAP kinase lies immediately C-terminal to the catalytic domain and is followed by a nuclear localization signal, Lys-Lys-(Xaa)10-Lys-Arg-Arg-Lys-Lys, near the C-terminus.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)843-849
    Number of pages7
    JournalBiochemical Journal
    Volume296
    Issue number3
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 15 Dec 1993

    Fingerprint

    90-kDa Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases
    Substrate Specificity
    Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
    Protein Kinases
    Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2
    Catalytic Domain
    Phosphorylation
    Threonine
    Proline
    Serine
    lysyllysine
    Arginine
    Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 4
    Substrates
    Phosphorylase Kinase
    Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases
    Teratocarcinoma
    Nuclear Localization Signals
    Glycogen Synthase
    Peptides

    Cite this

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    title = "The substrate specificity and structure of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase-activated protein kinase-2",
    abstract = "The substrate specificity of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase-activated protein kinase-2 (MAPKAP kinase-2) was investigated by using synthetic peptides related to the N-terminus of glycogen synthase. The minimum sequence required for efficient phosphorylation was found to be Xaa-Xaa-Hyd-Xaa-Arg-Xaa-Xaa-Ser-Xaa-Xaa, where Hyd is a bulky hydrophobic residue (Phe > Leu > Val ≥ Ala), and the peptide Lys-Lys-Phe-Asn-Arg-Thr-Leu-Ser-Val-Ala was phosphorylated with a K(m) of 9.3 μM and V(max) of 10 μmol/min per mg. MAPKAP kinase-1 (a homologue of ribosomal protein S6 kinase) also requires an arginine three residues N-terminal to the serine (position n-3), but not a hydrophobic residue at position n-5. Neither MAPKAP kinase-1 nor MAPKAP kinase-2 could tolerate a proline residue at position n + 1, indicating that their specificities do not overlap with that of MAP kinase. The specificity of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase-II resembled that of MAPKAP kinase-2, except that it could tolerate replacement of the arginine by a lysine and the phosphorylation-site serine by a threonine residue. Partial cDNAs encoding MAPKAP kinase-2 were isolated from rabbit and human skeletal muscle and human teratocarcinoma libraries, and Northern-blotting experiments revealed a single 3.3 kb mRNA transcript present at similar levels in six human tissues examined. The catalytic domain was most similar (35-40{\%} identity) to calmodulin-dependent protein kinases II and IV, phosphorylase kinase, putative serine kinase H1 and the C-terminal domain of MAPKAP kinase-1, which form one branch of the protein kinase phylogenetic tree. The sequence N-terminal to the catalytic domain is proline-rich and contains two putative SH3-binding sites. The threonine residue phosphorylated by MAP kinase lies immediately C-terminal to the catalytic domain and is followed by a nuclear localization signal, Lys-Lys-(Xaa)10-Lys-Arg-Arg-Lys-Lys, near the C-terminus.",
    author = "D. Stokoe and B. Caudwell and Cohen, {P. T.W.} and P. Cohen",
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    The substrate specificity and structure of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase-activated protein kinase-2. / Stokoe, D.; Caudwell, B.; Cohen, P. T.W.; Cohen, P.

    In: Biochemical Journal, Vol. 296, No. 3, 15.12.1993, p. 843-849.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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    T1 - The substrate specificity and structure of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase-activated protein kinase-2

    AU - Stokoe, D.

    AU - Caudwell, B.

    AU - Cohen, P. T.W.

    AU - Cohen, P.

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    N2 - The substrate specificity of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase-activated protein kinase-2 (MAPKAP kinase-2) was investigated by using synthetic peptides related to the N-terminus of glycogen synthase. The minimum sequence required for efficient phosphorylation was found to be Xaa-Xaa-Hyd-Xaa-Arg-Xaa-Xaa-Ser-Xaa-Xaa, where Hyd is a bulky hydrophobic residue (Phe > Leu > Val ≥ Ala), and the peptide Lys-Lys-Phe-Asn-Arg-Thr-Leu-Ser-Val-Ala was phosphorylated with a K(m) of 9.3 μM and V(max) of 10 μmol/min per mg. MAPKAP kinase-1 (a homologue of ribosomal protein S6 kinase) also requires an arginine three residues N-terminal to the serine (position n-3), but not a hydrophobic residue at position n-5. Neither MAPKAP kinase-1 nor MAPKAP kinase-2 could tolerate a proline residue at position n + 1, indicating that their specificities do not overlap with that of MAP kinase. The specificity of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase-II resembled that of MAPKAP kinase-2, except that it could tolerate replacement of the arginine by a lysine and the phosphorylation-site serine by a threonine residue. Partial cDNAs encoding MAPKAP kinase-2 were isolated from rabbit and human skeletal muscle and human teratocarcinoma libraries, and Northern-blotting experiments revealed a single 3.3 kb mRNA transcript present at similar levels in six human tissues examined. The catalytic domain was most similar (35-40% identity) to calmodulin-dependent protein kinases II and IV, phosphorylase kinase, putative serine kinase H1 and the C-terminal domain of MAPKAP kinase-1, which form one branch of the protein kinase phylogenetic tree. The sequence N-terminal to the catalytic domain is proline-rich and contains two putative SH3-binding sites. The threonine residue phosphorylated by MAP kinase lies immediately C-terminal to the catalytic domain and is followed by a nuclear localization signal, Lys-Lys-(Xaa)10-Lys-Arg-Arg-Lys-Lys, near the C-terminus.

    AB - The substrate specificity of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase-activated protein kinase-2 (MAPKAP kinase-2) was investigated by using synthetic peptides related to the N-terminus of glycogen synthase. The minimum sequence required for efficient phosphorylation was found to be Xaa-Xaa-Hyd-Xaa-Arg-Xaa-Xaa-Ser-Xaa-Xaa, where Hyd is a bulky hydrophobic residue (Phe > Leu > Val ≥ Ala), and the peptide Lys-Lys-Phe-Asn-Arg-Thr-Leu-Ser-Val-Ala was phosphorylated with a K(m) of 9.3 μM and V(max) of 10 μmol/min per mg. MAPKAP kinase-1 (a homologue of ribosomal protein S6 kinase) also requires an arginine three residues N-terminal to the serine (position n-3), but not a hydrophobic residue at position n-5. Neither MAPKAP kinase-1 nor MAPKAP kinase-2 could tolerate a proline residue at position n + 1, indicating that their specificities do not overlap with that of MAP kinase. The specificity of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase-II resembled that of MAPKAP kinase-2, except that it could tolerate replacement of the arginine by a lysine and the phosphorylation-site serine by a threonine residue. Partial cDNAs encoding MAPKAP kinase-2 were isolated from rabbit and human skeletal muscle and human teratocarcinoma libraries, and Northern-blotting experiments revealed a single 3.3 kb mRNA transcript present at similar levels in six human tissues examined. The catalytic domain was most similar (35-40% identity) to calmodulin-dependent protein kinases II and IV, phosphorylase kinase, putative serine kinase H1 and the C-terminal domain of MAPKAP kinase-1, which form one branch of the protein kinase phylogenetic tree. The sequence N-terminal to the catalytic domain is proline-rich and contains two putative SH3-binding sites. The threonine residue phosphorylated by MAP kinase lies immediately C-terminal to the catalytic domain and is followed by a nuclear localization signal, Lys-Lys-(Xaa)10-Lys-Arg-Arg-Lys-Lys, near the C-terminus.

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