An alternative to complete genome sequencing is development and analysis of ESTs-fragments of transcribed coding DNA sequences. The EST collections also enhanced the development of cDNA microarray technologies, which make possible assessing the transcription levels of several thousand genes in a studied tissue of an organism in the same experiment. This paper provides an overview of the results of experiments with a barley microarray, Affymetrix Barley1 GeneChip. The variation in transcription levels of over 22000 genes in germinating barley grain of 150 barley double haploid lines produced by crossing cultivars Steptoe and Morex. Variation in gene expression of each gene is a quantitative trait, which can be mapped in population of double haploids as the genetic loci determining its variation (expressed QTL or eQTL). A regulatory locus (eQTL) can colocalize with the corresponding gene on genetic map (cis-eQTL) or be distant from it, frequently on another chromosome (trans-eQTL). Thus, it is possible to detect and analyze cis- and trans-regulatory loci for genes on a genome-wide scale. The design of the Affymetrix oligonucleotide arrays makes it possible not only to concurrently test the transcription level of several thousand genes, but also to simultaneously detect the polymorphic regions in cDNA sequences, thereby finding a considerable fraction of all nucleotide substitutions between the compared genotypes. Two types of data (the expression levels of several thousand genes and the presence of polymorphic sites in their sequences) can be obtained concurrently when processing the results of the same experiment. The details of both procedures are illustrated with explanatory examples.