Aim: Chemotherapy results in permanent loss of ovarian function in some premenopausal women. Accurate identification in women with hormone-sensitive early breast cancer (eBC) would allow optimisation of subsequent endocrine treatment. We sought to assess whether analysis of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) using a sensitive automated assay could identify women who would not regain ovarian function after chemotherapy.
Methods: Data from women in the Ovarian Protection Trial in Premenopausal Breast Cancer Patients (OPTION) trial of goserelin (a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue) for ovarian protection were analysed. Women were assessed for premature ovarian insufficiency (POI: amenorrhoea with elevated follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)) at 24 months after diagnosis. The accuracy of AMH for the diagnosis of POI and its prediction from measurement at the end of chemotherapy was calculated.
Results: AMH below the level of detection showed good diagnostic accuracy for POI at 24 months (n = 73) with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area under the curve of 0.86, sensitivity 1.0 and specificity 0.73 at the assay limit of detection. In women aged >40 at diagnosis who did not receive goserelin, AMH measured at end of chemotherapy also gave good prediction of POI at 24 months (area under the curve (AUC) 0.89 95% CI 0.75-1.0, n = 32), with sensitivity 0.91, specificity 0.82, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) 42.8. FSH gave slightly lower AUC, and specificity was low at 0.55. Age but not tamoxifen impacted on AMH levels.
Conclusion: Using this sensitive AMH assay, the finding of an undetectable AMH level in women aged >40 at the end of chemotherapy for eBC gave a good prediction that ovarian function would not return. This may allow alterations in post-chemotherapy endocrine management.
- Breast cancer
- Hormone sensitive
- Ovarian function