Computer-based digital orthodontic models have been developed that have the potential to replace dental casts. The aim of this study was to examine the accuracy and reproducibility of measurements made on digital models. Ten sets of orthodontic study models were scanned using the Arius3D Foundation System and three-dimensional (3D) images were produced by computer software. Two examiners individually measured 11 parameters on the conventional casts and the digital models on two occasions. The parameters included mesio-distal crown diameter, intercanine and intermolar width, arch length, overjet, and incisor crown height. The measurement techniques were compared using paired t-tests, the coefficient of reliability, and by calculating mean values and the difference between methods.When comparing measurements made on digital models with those on dental casts, systematic errors were detected for five of the 11 parameters at the 10 per cent level. Random errors were a cause of concern for measurements of three parameters. The most accurate and reproducible measurements were lower intercanine width (mean difference between measurements 0.05 ± 0.32 mm) and overjet (mean difference 0.07 ± 0.33 mm). Most parameters on the digital models can be reliably measured, and digital models can potentially eliminate the requirement for the production and storage of dental casts, but this will depend on cost.