Timing and significance of mid-Holocene glacier advances in Northern and Central Iceland

Martin.P. Kirkbride, Andrew J. Dugmore

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    42 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Tephrochronology is used to date mid-Holocene moraines in Iceland. In the Grænavatn cirque (Tröllaskagi Peninsula) the H-4 tephra (ca. 3830 yr BP) lies within sediment accumulated against the distal slope of a lateral moraine, providing a minimum age for glaciation, and the absence of H-5 (ca. 5950 yr BP) provides a maximum age. By implication, the cirque was glaciated in the early Neoglacial period. A large rock glacier, the development of which post-dates the moraine, probably formed within the 'Little Ice Age' (LIA) of the sixteenth to nineteenth centuries AD. At Eystri-Loomundarjökull in central Iceland, frozen colluvium containing the H-3 (ca. 2900 yr BP) and H-4 tephras provides a minimum age of ca. 3830 yr BP for two terminal moraines, and a maximum age of ca. 2900 yr BP for a third. The older moraines are correlated with the Vatnsdalur I/Drangagíl advances (ca. 4700 yr BP and = 4500 yr BP respectively) and the Bægisárdalur I advance (ca. 4200 yr BP). They imply that early Neoglacial advances throughout Iceland were locally more extensive than those of the LIA. The apparent LIA Holocene glacial maximum may reflect (i) selective sampling of large ice-cap-outlet glaciers, where the preservation potential of pre-LIA deposits is low, and (ii) reliance on lichenometric dating, which has a restriced temporal range.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)145-153
    Number of pages9
    JournalJournal of Quaternary Science
    Volume16
    Issue number2
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Feb 2001

    Fingerprint

    glacier advance
    Little Ice Age
    Holocene
    Neoglacial
    cirque
    moraine
    tephrochronology
    rock glacier
    colluvial deposit
    ice cap
    tephra
    nineteenth century
    glaciation
    glacier
    Iceland
    Mid-Holocene
    Glacier
    sampling
    sediment

    Keywords

    • Glacier fluctuations
    • Neoglaciation
    • Little ice age
    • Iceland
    • Tephrochronology

    Cite this

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    title = "Timing and significance of mid-Holocene glacier advances in Northern and Central Iceland",
    abstract = "Tephrochronology is used to date mid-Holocene moraines in Iceland. In the Gr{\ae}navatn cirque (Tr{\"o}llaskagi Peninsula) the H-4 tephra (ca. 3830 yr BP) lies within sediment accumulated against the distal slope of a lateral moraine, providing a minimum age for glaciation, and the absence of H-5 (ca. 5950 yr BP) provides a maximum age. By implication, the cirque was glaciated in the early Neoglacial period. A large rock glacier, the development of which post-dates the moraine, probably formed within the 'Little Ice Age' (LIA) of the sixteenth to nineteenth centuries AD. At Eystri-Loomundarj{\"o}kull in central Iceland, frozen colluvium containing the H-3 (ca. 2900 yr BP) and H-4 tephras provides a minimum age of ca. 3830 yr BP for two terminal moraines, and a maximum age of ca. 2900 yr BP for a third. The older moraines are correlated with the Vatnsdalur I/Drangag{\'i}l advances (ca. 4700 yr BP and = 4500 yr BP respectively) and the B{\ae}gis{\'a}rdalur I advance (ca. 4200 yr BP). They imply that early Neoglacial advances throughout Iceland were locally more extensive than those of the LIA. The apparent LIA Holocene glacial maximum may reflect (i) selective sampling of large ice-cap-outlet glaciers, where the preservation potential of pre-LIA deposits is low, and (ii) reliance on lichenometric dating, which has a restriced temporal range.",
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    Timing and significance of mid-Holocene glacier advances in Northern and Central Iceland. / Kirkbride, Martin.P.; Dugmore, Andrew J.

    In: Journal of Quaternary Science, Vol. 16, No. 2, 02.2001, p. 145-153.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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    AU - Kirkbride, Martin.P.

    AU - Dugmore, Andrew J.

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    N2 - Tephrochronology is used to date mid-Holocene moraines in Iceland. In the Grænavatn cirque (Tröllaskagi Peninsula) the H-4 tephra (ca. 3830 yr BP) lies within sediment accumulated against the distal slope of a lateral moraine, providing a minimum age for glaciation, and the absence of H-5 (ca. 5950 yr BP) provides a maximum age. By implication, the cirque was glaciated in the early Neoglacial period. A large rock glacier, the development of which post-dates the moraine, probably formed within the 'Little Ice Age' (LIA) of the sixteenth to nineteenth centuries AD. At Eystri-Loomundarjökull in central Iceland, frozen colluvium containing the H-3 (ca. 2900 yr BP) and H-4 tephras provides a minimum age of ca. 3830 yr BP for two terminal moraines, and a maximum age of ca. 2900 yr BP for a third. The older moraines are correlated with the Vatnsdalur I/Drangagíl advances (ca. 4700 yr BP and = 4500 yr BP respectively) and the Bægisárdalur I advance (ca. 4200 yr BP). They imply that early Neoglacial advances throughout Iceland were locally more extensive than those of the LIA. The apparent LIA Holocene glacial maximum may reflect (i) selective sampling of large ice-cap-outlet glaciers, where the preservation potential of pre-LIA deposits is low, and (ii) reliance on lichenometric dating, which has a restriced temporal range.

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