Class kappa glutathione S-transferases are a poorly characterized family of detoxication enzymes whose localization has not been defined. In this study we investigated the tissue, cellular, and subcellular distribution of mouse glutathione S-transferase class kappa 1 (mGSTK1) protein using a variety of immunolocalization techniques. Western blotting analysis of mouse tissue homogenates demonstrated that mGSTK1 is expressed at relatively high levels in liver and stomach. Moderate expression was observed in kidney, heart, large intestine, testis, and lung, whereas sparse or essentially no mGSTK1 protein was detected in small intestine, brain, spleen, and skeletal muscle. Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis for mGSTK1 revealed granular staining of hepatocytes throughout the liver, consistent with organelle staining. IHC analysis of murine kidney localized GSTK1 to the straight portion of the proximal convoluted tubule (pars recta). Staining was consistent with regions rich in mitochondria. Electron microscopy, using indirect immunocolloidal gold staining, clearly showed that mGSTK1 was localized in mitochondria in both mouse liver and kidney. These results are consistent with a role for mGST K1-1 in detoxification, and the confirmation of the intramitochondrial localization of this enzyme implies a unique role for GST class kappa as an antioxidant enzyme.
- Glutathione S-transferase