Background: Children in Gaza Strip suffer from a high prevalence of dental fluorosis.
Aims: To estimate and compare total daily fluoride (F) intake (TDFI) and investigate the relative contributions of different sources of F to TDFI, in 3- to 4-year-old children in Gaza Strip, exposed to low (<0.7 mg/litre), moderate (0.7-1.2 mg/litre) or high (>1.2 mg/litre) F concentrations in tap water.
Design: A 3-day food diary and samples of tap water, drinks, foods, toothpastes and toothbrushing expectorate were collected from 216 children receiving low (n = 81), moderate (n = 72) or high (n = 63) F concentrations in tap water. F concentration of samples was analysed using an F-ion-selective electrode. TDFI from all sources was estimated. Data were analysed by anova and Tukey's test.
Results: The mean (±SD) F concentration in low, moderate and high F tap waters was 0.21(±0.15), 0.91(±0.13) and 1.71(±0.35) mg/litre, respectively. Mean (±SD) TDFI was 0.02(±0.01), 0.04(±0.01) and 0.05(±0.03) mg/kg bw/day, respectively (P < 0.0001). Foods made the largest contribution (63.9%) to TDFI.
Conclusion: Total daily fluoride (F) intake increased as F concentration in tap water increased. Foods were the primary source of F. Programmes for monitoring fluoride expose should consider the fluoride concentration of water used for food preparation and local dietary behaviours. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry