Toward the simulation of emotion in synthetic speech: A review of the literature on human vocal emotion

Iain R. Murray, John L. Arnott

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    649 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    There has been considerable research into perceptible correlates of emotional state, but a very limited amount of the literature examines the acoustic correlates and other relevant aspects of emotion effects in human speech; in addition, the vocal emotion literature is almost totally separate from the main body of speech analysis literature. A discussion of the literature describing human vocal emotion, and its principal findings, are presented. The voice parameters affected by emotion are found to be of three main types: voice quality, utterance timing, and utterance pitch contour. These parameters are described both in general and in detail for a range of specific emotions. Current speech synthesizer technology is such that many of the parameters of human speech affected by emotion could be manipulated systematically in synthetic speech to produce a simulation of vocal emotion; application of the literature to construction of a system capable of producing synthetic speech with emotion is discussed.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1097-1108
    Number of pages12
    JournalJournal of the Acoustical Society of America
    Volume93
    Issue number2
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 1993

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