Toxoplasma protein export and effector function

Simona Seizova, Abel Ferrel, John Boothroyd (Lead / Corresponding author), Christopher J. Tonkin

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Toxoplasma gondii is a single-celled eukaryotic parasite with a considerable host range that must invade the cells of warm-blooded hosts to survive and replicate. The challenges and opportunities that such a strategy represent have been met by the evolution of effectors that are delivered into host cells, counter host defences and co-opt host cell functions for their own purposes. These effectors are delivered in two waves using distinct machinery for each. In this Review, we focus on understanding the architecture of these protein-export systems and how their protein cargo is recognized and selected. We discuss the recent findings on the role that host manipulation has in latent Toxoplasma infections. We also discuss how these recent findings compare to protein export in the related Plasmodium spp. (the causative agent of malaria) and how this can inform our understanding of host manipulation in the larger Apicomplexa phylum and its evolution.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)17-28
Number of pages12
JournalNature Microbiology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 3 Jan 2024

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Immunology
  • Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
  • Genetics
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Cell Biology


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