Trypanothione is a thiol unique to the Kinetoplastida and has been shown to be a vital component of their antioxidant defenses. However, little is known as to the role of trypanothione in xenobiotic metabolism. A trypanothione S-transferase activity was detected in extracts of Leishmania major, L. infantum, L. tarentolae, Trypanosoma brucei, and Crithidia fasciculata, but not Trypanosoma cruzi. No glutathione S-transferase activity was detected in any of these parasites. Trypanothione S-transferase was purified from C. fasciculata and shown to be a hexadecameric complex of three subunits with a relative molecular weight of 650,000. This enzyme complex was specific for the thiols trypanothione and glutathionylspermidine and only used 1-chloro-2,4- dinitrobenzene from a range of glutathione S-transferase substrates. Peptide sequencing revealed that the three components were the α, β, and γ subunits of ribosomal eukaryotic elongation factor 1B (eEF1B). Partial dissociation of the complex suggested that the S-transferase activity was associated with the gamma subunit. Moreover, Cibacron blue was found to be a tight binding inhibitor and reactive blue 4 an irreversible time-dependent inhibitor that covalently modified only the γ subunit. The rate of inactivation by reactive blue 4 was increased more than 600-fold in the presence of trypanothione, and Cibacron blue protected the enzyme from inactivation by 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, confirming that these dyes interact with the active site region. Two eEF1Bγ genes were cloned from C. fasciculata, but recombinant C. fasciculata eEF1Bγ had no S-transferase activity, suggesting that eEF1Bγ is unstable in the absence of the other subunits.