Twenty years of research on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): looking back, looking forward

Samuele Cortese, David Coghill

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

    8 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    In this clinical review we summarise what in our view have been some the most important advances in the past two decades, in terms of diagnostic definition, epidemiology, genetics and environmental causes, neuroimaging/cognition and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), including: (1) the most recent changes to the diagnostic criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and International Classification of Diseases; (2) meta-analytic evidence showing that, after accounting for diagnostic methods, the rates of ADHD are fairly consistent across Western countries; (3) the recent finding of the first genome-wide significant risk loci for ADHD; (4) the paradigm shift in the pathophysiological conceptualisation of ADHD from alterations in individual brain regions to a complex dysfunction in brain networks; (5) evidence supporting the short-term efficacy of ADHD pharmacological treatments, with a different profile of efficacy and tolerability in children/adolescents versus adults; (6) a series of meta-analyses showing that, while non-pharmacological treatment may not be effective to target ADHD core symptoms, some of them effectively address ADHD-related impairments (such as oppositional behaviours for parent training and working memory deficits for cognitive training). We also discuss key priorities for future research in each of these areas of investigation. Overall, while many research questions have been answered, many others need to be addressed. Strengthening multidisciplinary collaborations, relying on large data sets in the spirit of Open Science and supporting research in less advantaged countries will be key to face the challenges ahead.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)173-176
    Number of pages4
    JournalEvidence-Based Mental Health
    Volume21
    Issue number4
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Nov 2018

    Fingerprint

    Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity
    Research
    Molecular Epidemiology
    Memory Disorders
    Brain
    International Classification of Diseases
    Short-Term Memory
    Neuroimaging
    Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
    Cognition
    Meta-Analysis
    Therapeutics
    Genome
    Pharmacology

    Cite this

    @article{e92483dba4c049dfb97da2aaf6f11308,
    title = "Twenty years of research on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): looking back, looking forward",
    abstract = "In this clinical review we summarise what in our view have been some the most important advances in the past two decades, in terms of diagnostic definition, epidemiology, genetics and environmental causes, neuroimaging/cognition and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), including: (1) the most recent changes to the diagnostic criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and International Classification of Diseases; (2) meta-analytic evidence showing that, after accounting for diagnostic methods, the rates of ADHD are fairly consistent across Western countries; (3) the recent finding of the first genome-wide significant risk loci for ADHD; (4) the paradigm shift in the pathophysiological conceptualisation of ADHD from alterations in individual brain regions to a complex dysfunction in brain networks; (5) evidence supporting the short-term efficacy of ADHD pharmacological treatments, with a different profile of efficacy and tolerability in children/adolescents versus adults; (6) a series of meta-analyses showing that, while non-pharmacological treatment may not be effective to target ADHD core symptoms, some of them effectively address ADHD-related impairments (such as oppositional behaviours for parent training and working memory deficits for cognitive training). We also discuss key priorities for future research in each of these areas of investigation. Overall, while many research questions have been answered, many others need to be addressed. Strengthening multidisciplinary collaborations, relying on large data sets in the spirit of Open Science and supporting research in less advantaged countries will be key to face the challenges ahead.",
    author = "Samuele Cortese and David Coghill",
    note = "{\circledC} Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2018. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.",
    year = "2018",
    month = "11",
    doi = "10.1136/ebmental-2018-300050",
    language = "English",
    volume = "21",
    pages = "173--176",
    journal = "Evidence-Based Mental Health",
    issn = "1362-0347",
    publisher = "BMJ Publishing Group",
    number = "4",

    }

    Twenty years of research on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) : looking back, looking forward. / Cortese, Samuele; Coghill, David.

    In: Evidence-Based Mental Health, Vol. 21, No. 4, 11.2018, p. 173-176.

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Twenty years of research on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    T2 - looking back, looking forward

    AU - Cortese, Samuele

    AU - Coghill, David

    N1 - © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2018. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.

    PY - 2018/11

    Y1 - 2018/11

    N2 - In this clinical review we summarise what in our view have been some the most important advances in the past two decades, in terms of diagnostic definition, epidemiology, genetics and environmental causes, neuroimaging/cognition and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), including: (1) the most recent changes to the diagnostic criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and International Classification of Diseases; (2) meta-analytic evidence showing that, after accounting for diagnostic methods, the rates of ADHD are fairly consistent across Western countries; (3) the recent finding of the first genome-wide significant risk loci for ADHD; (4) the paradigm shift in the pathophysiological conceptualisation of ADHD from alterations in individual brain regions to a complex dysfunction in brain networks; (5) evidence supporting the short-term efficacy of ADHD pharmacological treatments, with a different profile of efficacy and tolerability in children/adolescents versus adults; (6) a series of meta-analyses showing that, while non-pharmacological treatment may not be effective to target ADHD core symptoms, some of them effectively address ADHD-related impairments (such as oppositional behaviours for parent training and working memory deficits for cognitive training). We also discuss key priorities for future research in each of these areas of investigation. Overall, while many research questions have been answered, many others need to be addressed. Strengthening multidisciplinary collaborations, relying on large data sets in the spirit of Open Science and supporting research in less advantaged countries will be key to face the challenges ahead.

    AB - In this clinical review we summarise what in our view have been some the most important advances in the past two decades, in terms of diagnostic definition, epidemiology, genetics and environmental causes, neuroimaging/cognition and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), including: (1) the most recent changes to the diagnostic criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and International Classification of Diseases; (2) meta-analytic evidence showing that, after accounting for diagnostic methods, the rates of ADHD are fairly consistent across Western countries; (3) the recent finding of the first genome-wide significant risk loci for ADHD; (4) the paradigm shift in the pathophysiological conceptualisation of ADHD from alterations in individual brain regions to a complex dysfunction in brain networks; (5) evidence supporting the short-term efficacy of ADHD pharmacological treatments, with a different profile of efficacy and tolerability in children/adolescents versus adults; (6) a series of meta-analyses showing that, while non-pharmacological treatment may not be effective to target ADHD core symptoms, some of them effectively address ADHD-related impairments (such as oppositional behaviours for parent training and working memory deficits for cognitive training). We also discuss key priorities for future research in each of these areas of investigation. Overall, while many research questions have been answered, many others need to be addressed. Strengthening multidisciplinary collaborations, relying on large data sets in the spirit of Open Science and supporting research in less advantaged countries will be key to face the challenges ahead.

    U2 - 10.1136/ebmental-2018-300050

    DO - 10.1136/ebmental-2018-300050

    M3 - Review article

    C2 - 30301823

    VL - 21

    SP - 173

    EP - 176

    JO - Evidence-Based Mental Health

    JF - Evidence-Based Mental Health

    SN - 1362-0347

    IS - 4

    ER -