Typing performance of blind users: an analysis of touch behaviors, learning effect, and in-situ usage

Hugo Nicolau, Kyle Montague, Tiago Guerreiro, André Rodrigues, Vicki L. Hanson

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

20 Citations (Scopus)
116 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Non-visual text-entry for people with visual impairments has focused mostly on the comparison of input techniques reporting on performance measures, such as accuracy and speed. While researchers have been able to establish that non-visual input is slow and error prone, there is little understanding on how to improve it. To develop a richer characterization of typing performance, we conducted a longitudinal study with five novice blind users. For eight weeks, we collected in-situ usage data and conducted weekly laboratory assessment sessions. This paper presents a thorough analysis of typing performance that goes beyond traditional aggregated measures of text-entry and reports on character-level errors and touch measures. Our findings show that users improve over time, even though it is at a slow rate (0.3 WPM per week). Substitutions are the most common type of error and have a significant impact on entry rates. In addition to text input data, we analyzed touch behaviors, looking at touch contact points, exploration movements, and lift positions. We provide insights on why and how performance improvements and errors occur. Finally, we derive some implications that should inform the design of future virtual keyboards for non-visual input.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationASSETS'15
Subtitle of host publicationProceedings of the 17th International ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Computers and Accessibility
Place of PublicationNew York
PublisherAssociation for Computing Machinery
Pages273-280
Number of pages8
ISBN (Electronic)9781450334006
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015
Event17th International ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Computers and Accessibility - SANA LISBOA Hotel, Lisbon, Portugal
Duration: 26 Oct 201528 Oct 2015
http://assets15.sigaccess.org/

Conference

Conference17th International ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Computers and Accessibility
Abbreviated titleASSETS 2015
CountryPortugal
CityLisbon
Period26/10/1528/10/15
Internet address

Keywords

  • Blind
  • Novice
  • Text-Entry
  • Input
  • Touch
  • Behavior
  • Performance

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    Nicolau, H., Montague, K., Guerreiro, T., Rodrigues, A., & Hanson, V. L. (2015). Typing performance of blind users: an analysis of touch behaviors, learning effect, and in-situ usage. In ASSETS'15 : Proceedings of the 17th International ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Computers and Accessibility (pp. 273-280). Association for Computing Machinery. https://doi.org/10.1145/2700648.2809861