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Yersinia species cause zoonotic infections, including enterocolitis and plague. Here we studied Yersinia ruckeri antifeeding prophage 18 (Afp18), the toxin component of the phage tail-derived protein translocation system Afp, which causes enteric redmouth disease in salmonid fish species. Here we show that microinjection of the glycosyltransferase domain Afp18G into zebrafish embryos blocks cytokinesis, actin-dependent motility and cell blebbing, eventually abrogating gastrulation. In zebrafish ZF4 cells, Afp18G depolymerizes actin stress fibres by mono-O-GlcNAcylation of RhoA at tyrosine-34; thereby Afp18G inhibits RhoA activation by guanine nucleotide exchange factors, and blocks RhoA, but not Rac and Cdc42 downstream signalling. The crystal structure of tyrosine-GlcNAcylated RhoA reveals an open conformation of the effector loop distinct from recently described structures of GDP- or GTP-bound RhoA. Unravelling of the molecular mechanism of the toxin component Afp18 as glycosyltransferase opens new perspectives in studies of phage tail-derived protein translocation systems, which are preserved from archaea to human pathogenic prokaryotes.