There are common clinical scenarios in chronic heart disease where no randomized controlled data exist to guide management, and it is likely that well-designed observational studies will have to be used to inform clinical practice. Showing the clinical applicability of this type of study design, using record linkage of population electronic health records, we have provided key observational evidence that use of renin–angiotensin-system (RAS) blockers is associated with better outcomes in patients with aortic stenosis and that metformin could be used safely as an antiglycemic drug in patients with diabetes and heart failure. Each of these pieces of underpinning research has made a major contribution to relevant international clinical practice guidelines, helped the Food and Drug Administration in their decision making and changed prescribing practice.
- population electronic health records
- renin–angiotensin system blockers
- aortic stenosis
- heart failure