Using stable isotopes and continuous meltwater river monitoring to investigate the hydrology of a rapidly retreating Icelandic outlet glacier

A. M. MacDonald (Lead / Corresponding author), A. R. Black, B. É. Ó. Dochartaigh, J. Everest, W. G. Darling, Verity Flett, D. W. Peach

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Virkisjökull is a rapidly retreating outlet glacier draining the western flanks of Öræfajökull in SE Iceland. Since 2011 there have been continuous measurements of flow in the proglacial meltwater channel and regular campaigns to sample stable isotopes δ2H and δ18O from the river, ice, moraine springs and groundwater. The stable isotopes provide reliable endmembers for glacial ice and shallow groundwater. Analysis of data from 2011 to 2014 indicates that although ice and snowmelt dominate summer riverflow (mean 5.3–7.9 m3s‐1), significant flow is also observed in winter (mean 1.6–2.4 m3s‐1) due primarily to ongoing glacier ice‐melt. The stable isotope data demonstrate that the influence of groundwater discharge from moraines and the sandur aquifer increases during winter and forms a small (15–20%) consistent source of baseflow to the river. The similarity of hydrological response across seasons reflects a highly efficient glacial drainage system, which makes use of a series of permanent englacial channels within active and buried ice throughout the year. The study has shown that the development of an efficient year round drainage network within the lower part of the glacier has been coincident with the stagnation and subsequent rapid retreat of the glacier.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-8
Number of pages8
JournalAnnals of Glaciology
Volume57
Issue number72
Early online date20 Jul 2016
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2016

Fingerprint

meltwater
glacier
hydrology
stable isotope
monitoring
ice
river
groundwater
river ice
hydrological response
drainage network
winter
moraine
baseflow
snowmelt
aquifer
summer

Keywords

  • climate change
  • glacier hydroshemistry
  • glacier hydrology
  • glacier monitoring
  • meltwater chemistry

Cite this

MacDonald, A. M. ; Black, A. R. ; Dochartaigh, B. É. Ó. ; Everest, J. ; Darling, W. G. ; Flett, Verity ; Peach, D. W. / Using stable isotopes and continuous meltwater river monitoring to investigate the hydrology of a rapidly retreating Icelandic outlet glacier. In: Annals of Glaciology. 2016 ; Vol. 57, No. 72. pp. 1-8.
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abstract = "Virkisj{\"o}kull is a rapidly retreating outlet glacier draining the western flanks of {\"O}r{\ae}faj{\"o}kull in SE Iceland. Since 2011 there have been continuous measurements of flow in the proglacial meltwater channel and regular campaigns to sample stable isotopes δ2H and δ18O from the river, ice, moraine springs and groundwater. The stable isotopes provide reliable endmembers for glacial ice and shallow groundwater. Analysis of data from 2011 to 2014 indicates that although ice and snowmelt dominate summer riverflow (mean 5.3–7.9 m3s‐1), significant flow is also observed in winter (mean 1.6–2.4 m3s‐1) due primarily to ongoing glacier ice‐melt. The stable isotope data demonstrate that the influence of groundwater discharge from moraines and the sandur aquifer increases during winter and forms a small (15–20{\%}) consistent source of baseflow to the river. The similarity of hydrological response across seasons reflects a highly efficient glacial drainage system, which makes use of a series of permanent englacial channels within active and buried ice throughout the year. The study has shown that the development of an efficient year round drainage network within the lower part of the glacier has been coincident with the stagnation and subsequent rapid retreat of the glacier.",
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Using stable isotopes and continuous meltwater river monitoring to investigate the hydrology of a rapidly retreating Icelandic outlet glacier. / MacDonald, A. M. (Lead / Corresponding author); Black, A. R.; Dochartaigh, B. É. Ó.; Everest, J.; Darling, W. G.; Flett, Verity; Peach, D. W.

In: Annals of Glaciology, Vol. 57, No. 72, 07.2016, p. 1-8.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Using stable isotopes and continuous meltwater river monitoring to investigate the hydrology of a rapidly retreating Icelandic outlet glacier

AU - MacDonald, A. M.

AU - Black, A. R.

AU - Dochartaigh, B. É. Ó.

AU - Everest, J.

AU - Darling, W. G.

AU - Flett, Verity

AU - Peach, D. W.

N1 - This research was funded by the BGS-NERC Earth Hazards and Systems Directorate.

PY - 2016/7

Y1 - 2016/7

N2 - Virkisjökull is a rapidly retreating outlet glacier draining the western flanks of Öræfajökull in SE Iceland. Since 2011 there have been continuous measurements of flow in the proglacial meltwater channel and regular campaigns to sample stable isotopes δ2H and δ18O from the river, ice, moraine springs and groundwater. The stable isotopes provide reliable endmembers for glacial ice and shallow groundwater. Analysis of data from 2011 to 2014 indicates that although ice and snowmelt dominate summer riverflow (mean 5.3–7.9 m3s‐1), significant flow is also observed in winter (mean 1.6–2.4 m3s‐1) due primarily to ongoing glacier ice‐melt. The stable isotope data demonstrate that the influence of groundwater discharge from moraines and the sandur aquifer increases during winter and forms a small (15–20%) consistent source of baseflow to the river. The similarity of hydrological response across seasons reflects a highly efficient glacial drainage system, which makes use of a series of permanent englacial channels within active and buried ice throughout the year. The study has shown that the development of an efficient year round drainage network within the lower part of the glacier has been coincident with the stagnation and subsequent rapid retreat of the glacier.

AB - Virkisjökull is a rapidly retreating outlet glacier draining the western flanks of Öræfajökull in SE Iceland. Since 2011 there have been continuous measurements of flow in the proglacial meltwater channel and regular campaigns to sample stable isotopes δ2H and δ18O from the river, ice, moraine springs and groundwater. The stable isotopes provide reliable endmembers for glacial ice and shallow groundwater. Analysis of data from 2011 to 2014 indicates that although ice and snowmelt dominate summer riverflow (mean 5.3–7.9 m3s‐1), significant flow is also observed in winter (mean 1.6–2.4 m3s‐1) due primarily to ongoing glacier ice‐melt. The stable isotope data demonstrate that the influence of groundwater discharge from moraines and the sandur aquifer increases during winter and forms a small (15–20%) consistent source of baseflow to the river. The similarity of hydrological response across seasons reflects a highly efficient glacial drainage system, which makes use of a series of permanent englacial channels within active and buried ice throughout the year. The study has shown that the development of an efficient year round drainage network within the lower part of the glacier has been coincident with the stagnation and subsequent rapid retreat of the glacier.

KW - climate change

KW - glacier hydroshemistry

KW - glacier hydrology

KW - glacier monitoring

KW - meltwater chemistry

U2 - 10.1017/aog.2016.22

DO - 10.1017/aog.2016.22

M3 - Article

VL - 57

SP - 1

EP - 8

JO - Annals of Glaciology

JF - Annals of Glaciology

SN - 0260-3055

IS - 72

ER -